Reinforced concrete beam: types, advantages, features of the choice and production
In the construction of buildings or other structures designed for heavy loads, use of reinforced concrete beams. Thanks to their use, it is possible to evenly distribute the load on the supporting elements, to make the structure strong and reliable.
Scope of application
Reinforced concrete beams are indispensable for the construction of:
- Railway and tram tracks.
- Access roads
- High-rise buildings for different purposes.
- Workshops with crane special equipment.
- Industrial enterprises.
- Large warehouse.
- Agricultural complexes and many other structures and structures.
Advantages and disadvantages
Such high demand is explained by the fact that each reinforced concrete beam has such important properties:
- High installation speed (despite weight).
- Strength.Their reinforced concrete beams are much stronger than wooden counterparts.
- Resistance to any impacts.
- Rigidity. Due to this property, it is possible to overlap spans of large sizes with the help of the considered structures, and thus no deflection and vibration will arise.
- Fire resistance Concrete is a non-combustible material.
- Resistant to wet environments. This property is especially important in the construction of ceilings above rooms in which humidity is much higher than the norm.
Like other materials, the reinforced concrete beam has its drawbacks. First of all, this is a high cost of structures, but if we take into account the duration of their operation and other important characteristics, this disadvantage cannot be called a disadvantage.
The disadvantages include increased thermal conductivity - concrete, unlike wood, conveys heat or cold well. Another serious drawback is the large weight of the products. Because of this, when working with concrete elements, it is necessary to attract lifting mechanisms or machines. In addition, due to the impressive weight increases the load on the base of the building and its walls.
Types of products
To meet all the needs of the construction sector, enterprises produce beams of several types and types, which differ in different parameters. One of them is a section of a reinforced concrete beam, which happens:
In addition, products are produced in the form of girders and gable reinforced concrete floor beams. The latter have an I-section.
Products differ not only in form, but also in other parameters, primarily in the production method:
- Products that are made directly on the construction site to strengthen the monolithic structure.
- Precast reinforced concrete beams manufactured in production. The main feature of such products is the presence of a rectangular or T-section.
- Precast monolithic structures that combine the features of the previous types of structures.
For different applications, manufacturers offer different types of beam structures:
- Rafter beam reinforced concrete. Purpose of the product - arrangement of the roof on one-story buildings.
- Grid materials. Place of use - construction of racks (may havedifferent section).
- Crane elements. They are installed to balance the operation of cranes.
- Foundation materials. With their help, you can build a solid continuous solid foundation.
- Strapping constructions. Lintels and openings between the walls - the place of installation of these products.
- I-beams. Indispensable for the construction of large-panel buildings. In comparison with other types of products, this type of elements has the highest strength.
At the present time, reinforced concrete constructions factories produce finished products in large quantities. There are often cases when it is impossible to purchase a finished product of the required size for a specific construction object, and it has to be done independently. But in order for the product to have the necessary strength indicators, to be reliable and serve for a long time, it is necessary to carry out the correct calculation of the reinforced concrete beam.
To do this, it is necessary to determine the geometric dimensions of the desired product. The length includes the distance between the supports plus the width of the supports themselves. The width and height of the beam depends on the material from which the walls are made.For example, to build a cinder block, the height of the beam can be equal to the height of one element of the cinder block. If the structure is built of hollow brick, the height of the beam is equal to one or two heights of brick.
Next is to determine the support. It can be articulated, pinched at the ends or cantilevered. If the product passes over several rooms, then it is considered multi-span. Also, the calculation of reinforced concrete beams includes the determination of the load, which is concentrated or distributed, the choice of reinforcement, the method of reinforcement and many other parameters. It’s impossible to take everything into account independently, so it’s best to carry out an online calculation, which takes into account everything that allows you to eliminate all possible risks.
Tips for choosing
Best of all, of course, buy ready-made designs made at the factory - everything is already carefully calculated there. What should be taken into account in this? In addition to the length of the product, it is necessary to take into account such characteristics as:
- Beam weight. For example, if a columnar foundation is set up under the frame of the house, a solid reinforced concrete beam will be too heavy for it, and the hollow coating will not provide an adequate level of security in a large building.
- The presence of steam, sound, waterproofing and thermal protection.
- The strength of reinforced concrete.
Properly selected product is a guarantee of safety and reliability of a building capable of carrying even significant loads.