Reforms of Nicholas 1
The reign of Nicholas I began with the suppression of the Decembrist uprising in 1825, December 14. The reign ended during the Crimean War, during the defense of Sevastopol in 1855, in February.
At all levels of the management system, Nicholas 1 sought to establish maximum efficiency, giving the structure "expediency and harmony."
As a priority, the tsar sawstrengthening the police bureaucracy. The reforms of Nicholas 1 in this sphere consisted in combating revolutionary movements, in strengthening the autocratic order. The Tsar saw the fulfillment of these ideas in the consistent implementation of militarization, centralization and bureaucratization. The reforms of Nicholas 1, briefly, contributed to the formation of a well-thought-out system of comprehensive state intervention in the cultural, economic, social and political life of the country.
Together with this the tsar aspired to personal controlover all forms of state administration, as well as to concentrate decisions in their hands and private and common affairs, without involving relevant departments and ministries. In connection with this, numerous secret commissions and committees were created, which were directly under the authority of the ruler and often replaced ministries.
The reforms of Nicholas 1 also affected the office. Growing up, this department became a reflection of the regime of monarchical power.
Of great importance was the publication of a fifteen-volume"Code of Laws" in 1832. Russian legislation became orderly, absolutism in the country received a firmer and clear legal and legal basis. However, this was not followed by any changes in either the political or the social structure of feudal Russia.
The reforms of Nicholas 1 touched on the activities of the Thirdbranch of the Own Chancery. Under his administration, a gendarme corps was established. As a result, the entire country (except for the Transcaucasus, the Don, Finland and Poland) was divided into five and then into eight districts under the control of gendarme generals.
Thus, the Third Section began to reportthe sovereign about the slightest changes in the mood of the people. In addition, the duties of the department included checking the activities of the state system, local and central administration, revealing the facts of corruption and arbitrariness, bringing the perpetrators to justice and so on.
The main danger of "dissent" and "freethinking"lurked in the field of the press and enlightenment. So Nicholas 1 believed. Reforms in educational institutions began with the king's ascension to the throne. The emperor believed that the Decembrist uprising was the result of a "false educational system".
Thus, from 1827, it was forbidden to admit serfs to universities and gymnasiums. In 1828, the "Statute on educational institutions" was issued, and in 1835 - "University Charter".
The reforms of Nicholas 1 affected censorship. In 1828 new rules were introduced. They, of course, softened the earlier adopted, but provided for a large number of restrictions and prohibitions. Nicholas 1 considered the fight against journalism one of the main tasks. Since that moment, the publication of many magazines has been banned.
In the second quarter of the 19th century,the peasant question in the country. Nicholas 1 reformed the state village. However, the changes were very controversial. Of course, on the one hand, there was support for entrepreneurship, the prosperous part of the village. However, along with this increased tax burden. As a result, the population responded to the changes in the state village with mass uprisings.
Between 1839 and 1843 athe monetary reform, which resulted in the approval of a credit ruble, which was equal to one ruble in silver. This transformation allowed to strengthen the financial structure in the country.
The last years of the emperor's reigncontemporaries were called "gloomy seven years". The government in this period took measures to end the connection between the Russian and Western European people. The entry into Russia for foreigners, like the departure of Russians from Russia, was actually banned (the exception was the permission of the central government).