Reduction cooling unit: operating principle
Steam is an extremely effective state of matter,used to transfer heat energy. The gaseous phase of the substance is easy to create and transport, it is easy to adjust its parameters. Unique properties as a coolant predetermined its use in various industries, mainly in thermal and energy processes.
For more complete and effective usesteam, a reduction-cooling unit (DOC) was created - fittings of the energy and heat power industry. Such equipment has found application on the basis of medium and large business, as part of industrial enterprises, power stations, boiler houses and other organizations.
Steam - the main link in the system "source -consumer of heat. "With its condensation, instantaneous transfer of a huge amount of heat energy through the heat transfer surface takes place.The main task of this system is to provide the end user with the required amount of steam with the specified characteristics.
The movement of steam inside the system takes placeaccount of the driving force, which is artificially created while reducing the pressure in the apparatus and condensing the gaseous medium. This principle is realized in reduction-cooling plants.
The main elements that make up theequipment, are reduction and cooling fittings and safety devices, separators and steam traps, as well as a variety of control devices and a process automation system.
Basic principles of work
It should be noted that the formation of steamoccurs in a separate unit. The reduction-cooling system only brings its characteristics to the required values. In the installation of steam enters through the inlet valve and, passing through the filter element, enters the control valve. Here, the vapor pressure decreases.
The further principle of operation depends on the typereduction-cooling unit. If a steam pipe is provided in the structure, the cooling of the steam is due to the injection of a cooling liquid into it. In systems without a steam pipe, the cooling of the gaseous phase takes place directly in the control valve - the cooling agent or water is injected under its housing.
The temperature of the steam at the outlet depends on the amountof the spent cooling water that is injected through the nozzles or nozzle system. The amount of water is regulated by a special injection valve. Automation is responsible for maintaining the set temperature of the steam. The control of a given pressure is imposed on the system of throttling grids. After this, the steam with the specified characteristics comes to the consumer.
In the design of reduction-cooling plantsseveral control devices are provided. The first is shut-off valves that completely block the access of the cooling agent to the steam line or throttle valve.
The second is a system of safety valves,which is installed behind the regulating unit. It is necessary to lower the vapor pressure when it jumps into the system in the event of damage to the regulating valve.Such a solution protects personnel, as well as equipment from complete failure. The number of safety valves depends on the parameters of the gaseous medium and the capacity of the equipment.
To maintain the specified characteristics of the vapor inthe composition of the reduction-cooling unit includes pneumatic or electric regulators, which are subject to the automation system. It, in turn, focuses on signals of electronic indicators.
Types of installations
Depending on the speed of operationInstallations are divided into ordinary (DOC) and high-speed (BROU). Both systems are used in power units to reduce the temperature and steam pressure to the specified parameters.In addition, the reduction units(RU), which only reduce the vapor pressure, as well as cooling devices (OS), capable only of cooling it. Depending on the principle of operation realized in the reduction-cooling unit, its sphere of application is located.
In any case, the equipment is installed in the system as bypass devices of power plants, as well as for saving and reserving steam from working boilers and turbines.
Assignment of settings
Typical reduction-cooling units are designed to reduce the pressure and temperature of the steam, as well as to maintain the specified characteristics when transporting the gaseous phase to the consumer.
Quick settings are used forefficient use of water vapor when it is discharged by a power unit or boiler, for example, during start-up or shutdown, raising the pressure in the system above a critical level, or to reduce the load on steam generators.
Direct reduction-coolingInstallations are used to save production selections of power plant turbines, to kindle heating boilers, but only in medium and low pressure systems. They are also designed for steam release for industrial equipment, for steam release in power plants and in other cases where there is no own source of a gaseous medium with predetermined characteristics.
High-speed reduction-coolingThe unit is designed for evacuation of steam generated by a steam generator or a boiler, but not used by turbines in alternating or starting blocks. In this case, the BROU acts as an intermediary.
Steam passes through the device and enters the systemcapacitors or collectors, which are used to meet the company's own needs. The resulting steam can be used to power the pumps, to warm up the intermediate pipelines or to operate the blowers.
A new word in the use of uniquethe characteristics of the steam said CJSC "Reduction-cooling plants." This industrial enterprise of Barnaul specializes in the development and manufacture of heat and power equipment for industrial enterprises, medium and large businesses.
The company has been operating since 2003 and isone of the booming enterprises of the country. Only in 13 years the company has so increased its scale of production that it became the supplier of power equipment in the countries of Asia, America, the near abroad and Eastern Europe.
Another major domestic organization is theUralteplopribor. She is engaged in designing and manufacturing on special projects. As part of the manufacturer's reduction and cooling units, there are elements of foreign production. All equipment supplied by the company is certified and has a permit for use from Gosgortechnadzor.
Directions of development
Development of reduction cooling plantswill in the future more effectively use the thermal energy of the steam. Now the task is to modify the existing equipment in order to reduce the cost of its production, increase its durability and economic efficiency.
In the long term, more powerfuland cheap cooling reagents, the use of which will be safe for the personnel. It is also necessary to modernize the structure in order to improve its reliability and protection of employees. In these areas, modern companies operate.