Poor people of Dostoevsky. Summary of the novel
Today we will talk about one of the mostfascinating and wise novels in the history of Russian literature. As you already knew, this is Dostoevsky's Poor People. The brief content of this work, although it does not fully experience the characters, will imbue with the atmosphere, but will allow you to get acquainted with the main characters and key plot points. So, let's begin.
Familiarity with the main characters
Devushkin Makar Alekseevich - the main character of the novelPoor people of Dostoevsky. The summary allows you to get a general idea about it. Devushkin, a forty-seven-year-old titular adviser, is engaged in copying papers in one of the St. Petersburg departments for a modest salary. By the time the story begins, he is just moving to a new apartment near Fontanka, in the "capital" house. Along the long corridor are the doors of the rooms of other residents, and Devushkin himself hides behind the partition in the common kitchen. His previous home was much better, but now for the adviser in the first place - cheap, because he also has to pay in the same yard an expensive and comfortable apartment for Varvara Alekseevna Dobroselova, her distant relative. The poor official also takes care of a seventeen-year-old orphan, for whom, except for Devushkin, there is simply no one to intercede.
The beginning of a gentle friendship between Varenka and Makar
Varvara and Makar live side by side, but they are seeninfrequently - Devushkin is afraid of gossip and gossip. Nevertheless, both need empathy and warmth. How does one succeed in finding him Dostoevsky's novel Poor People? The summary does not mention how the correspondence began between Makar and Varenka, but very soon they begin to write to each other almost every day. 31 letters from Makar and 24 from Vary, written for the period from April 8 to September 30, 184 ..., reveal their relationship. The official denies himself a dress and food to allocate funds for sweets and flowers for his "angel." Varenka, in turn, is angry with her patron for high expenses. Makar claims that he is motivated only by paternal affection. A woman invites him to visit more often, they say, who cares? Also, Varenka takes a job at home - sewing.
There are several more letters. Makar tells his friend about his dwelling, comparing it with Noah's ark over the abundance of the disreputable public, draws portraits of its neighbors for her.
Here comes a new difficult situation in lifethe heroine of the novel Poor People by Dostoevsky. The brief outlines in general terms how Varenka is recognized by her distant relative, Anna Fyodorovna. For some time Varya and her mother lived in the house of Anna Fyodorovna, and afterwards a woman (to that time an orphan) was provided to the provided landowner Bykov to be able to cover the expenses. He disgraced her, and now Varya fears that the Bulls and the vault will know her address. Fear has undermined the poor's health, and only Makar's care saves her from the final "death". The bureaucrat sells his old uniform to get out his "yasochku." By the summer Varenka recovers and sends notes to a caring friend, in which she talks about her life.
Happy childhood Wari passed on her bosomrural nature, in the circle of his own family. However, soon the father of the family lost his job, followed by a series of other failures that brought him to the grave. Fourteen-year-old Varya and her mother were left alone in the whole world, and the house was forced to sell to cover debts. At that moment, they were sheltered by Anna Fyodorovna. Vari's mother worked without restraint and ruining the already precarious health, but the patron continued to reproach her. Varya herself began to learn from Peter Pokrovsky, a former student who lived in the same house. The girl was surprised that a kind and decent person treats with disrespect to her father, who, on the contrary, tried as often as possible to see his adored son. This man was once a petty official, but by the time of our history he was already completely drunk. Peter Bykov, the landlord, the Bykov gave out for him with an impressive dowry, but soon the young beauty passed away. Widower married again. Peter himself grew up separately, Bykov became his patron and he decided to put a young man forced to leave the institute because of his health condition, "for bread" to Anna Feodorovna, her "short acquaintance".
Young people come together, caring for not getting upfrom the bed mother Vary. An educated acquaintance introduced the girl to reading, helped her to develop a taste. But after a while Pokrovsky becomes sick with consumption and dies. At the expense of the funeral mistress takes all the few things the deceased. Old father managed to take several books from her, he filled them with a hat, pockets, etc. He went downstairs. The old man ran in tears behind the cart carrying the coffin, and the books fell from his pockets right into the mud. He picked them up and continued to run after him. In grief, Varya returned home, to her mother, but that too soon overtook death.
As you can already see, there are many topics thataffects in his work Dostoevsky. "Poor people", whose brief content is the topic of our conversation today, describe the life of Devushkin himself. In his letters to Varenka, he says that he has been serving for thirty years. "Dobrenky", "smirnenky" and "quiet" man becomes the object of ridicule of others. Makar is indignant, and the only joy in her life is Varenka - as if "the Lord blessed me with a house and family".
The patient Varya is arranged by the governess, sincefor it becomes apparent the inability of Makar to take care of himself financially - even servants and watchmen no longer look at him without contempt. The official himself is against this, since he believes that in order to be useful, Varenka needs to continue to have a beneficial effect on him, on his life.
Varya sends Devushkin a book - Pushkin's"Station warden", and then - Gogol's "Overcoat". But if the first allowed the official to rise in his eyes, the second, on the contrary, offends him. Makar identifies himself with Bashmachkin and believes that the author brazenly spied and disclosed all the details of his life. His dignity is offended, he believes that "after this one should complain".
Until early July, Makar squandered all hissaving. More than poverty, he is worried only by the endless ridicule of the tenants over him and Varenka. However, the worst thing is that one day one of the former neighbors comes to her, the "seeker" is an officer and makes the woman "an unworthy offer." Surrendering to despair, the hero for a few days goes into a binge, disappears and misses the service. Devushkin meets with the offender and makes an attempt to shame him, but as a result, he is thrown off the ladder.
Varya tries, as she can, to console her defender and calls him not to pay attention to gossip and come to her for dinner.
Starting in August, Makar seeks to borrow moneyat interest, but all his attempts fail. To all the previous problems, a new one was added: to Varenka, at the instigation of Anna Fyodorovna, a new "seeker" appeared. Soon Anna visits the girl herself. There is a need to move as soon as possible. From powerlessness Devushkin again drank, but Varya helps him to regain his self-esteem and desire to fight.
The state of health of Varenka herself is swiftdeteriorates, the woman is no longer able to do sewing. September evening, to dispel anxiety, Makar decides to walk along the Fontanka embankment. He begins to ponder why, if work is considered the basis of human dignity, so many idlers never feel the need for food and dress. He comes to the conclusion that happiness is given to man not for some of his services, and therefore the rich should not ignore the complaints of the poor.
September 9 Makaru smiled fortune. The official made a mistake on paper and was sent to the general for "piling." A miserable and humble official summoned sympathy in the heart of "His Excellency" and received a hundred rubles from the general personally. This is a real rescue in the distressed position of Devushkin: he manages to pay for an apartment, clothes, a table. The magnanimity of the chief makes Makar feel ashamed of his recent "liberal" reflections. The official is again full of hopes for the future, he spends his free time reading the "Northern Bee".
Here in the plot again wedged character,which Dostoevsky had already mentioned. "Poor people," the summary of which is close to the conclusion, continues when Bykov finds out about Varenka and on September 20 starts to ask for her. He seeks to have legal children, so that the "worthless nephew" does not receive an inheritance. Bykov prepared a reserve option: if Varya refuses him, he makes an offer to a merchant from Moscow. However, despite the fact that the proposal was made in a rude and unceremonious form, Varya agrees. Makar tries to dissuade her friend ("your heart will be cold!"), But the girl is adamant - she believes that only Bykov can save her from poverty and give her her honest name. From grief Devushkin falls ill, but until the last day continues to help Varenka with the fees in the way.
End of story
On September 30, a wedding took place. On the same day, just before she left for Bykov's estate, the girl wrote a farewell letter to an old friend.
The answer of Devushkin is full of despair. He already can not change anything, but he considers it his duty to say that all this time he deprived himself of all benefits only because "you ... here, nearby, on the contrary lived." Now the formed syllable of the letter, and Makar himself nobody needs. He does not know by what right it is possible to destroy a person's life.