Oprichnina Ivan the Terrible. Briefly about the prerequisites and consequences
Initially, the term "oprichnina" called allotments of wives of the dead nobles, widowed land. Under Ivan the Terrible, the meaning of the concept changed, the lands belonging to the tsar became known as the oprichnina, as well as a whole period in the history of the Russian state. An interesting stage in the history of the Russian state is the oprichnina of Ivan the Terrible. Briefly about this in this article.
Tsar Ivan the Terrible (1530-1584) is a very unusual historical figure, one of the most memorable and vivid images in the history of Russia. Only here in the majority of our contemporaries, it causes negative emotions and is associated with oppression, repression, restriction of human rights and cruelty. But do not forget about the positive deeds of the king, it was he who first crowned the kingdom of the Russian rulers, and not the reign, it was he who completed the design of absolutism in Russia, which was just necessary at that time. And it was he who contributed to a significant expansion of the country's borders.
What so ruined his reputation among the modern inhabitants? Perhaps the main reason for this is the oprichnina policy. And here it is difficult to disagree, it is impossible to call it fully weighed and thought out. For many researchers, its main characteristic is cruelty. But if you take into account the mentality of the society of Russia of the sixteenth century, as well as the political situation at the court and the fact that the king was young, then everything becomes quite explicable. Apparently, democratic measures, namely the creation of the Elected Parliament and the convening of the Zemsky Sobor, were ineffective.
Compared with the first period of government, the oprichnina of Ivan the Terrible, in short, was not a policy that worked for the good of the people of the country. Many historians wonder why the king turned to such harsh measures and whether the oprichnina was not the cause of the Troubles. In any case, if we talk about the premises of the oprichnina, then it is necessary to take into account not only the political situation, but also the personality of Ivan the Terrible himself.
The causes of the oprichnina Ivan the Terrible should be sought in the childhood of the king. Although officially the beginning of the oprichnina's policy was connected with the events of 1565, when the sovereign accused the ancient boyars of birth in treason and had to give up the throne.If you look at it, the logic of this act was as follows: Tsar Ivan the Terrible agreed to return to the capital to the grand princely throne, subject to the obedience of three conditions: permission without trial to execute for treason; the introduction of oprichnina; providing boyars Zemstvos. Now half of the land plots of the country, with the best, belonged to the tsar, the rest - the Boyar Duma.
The oprichnina of Ivan the Terrible: briefly about the main
In December 1564, the king unexpectedly ordered his own sons, wife, and confidants to gather and went to Alexander settlement, taking with him the whole treasury, as well as many valuable masterpieces of icon painting. A month later, Metropolitan Athanasius received a diploma from the sovereign, which listed all the atrocities and betrayals of the boyars. In this document, he wrote that he could no longer tolerate this, another letter was sent to ordinary people, where Ivan the Fourth assured people that he was not angry with them, that they were not the reason for his departure.
Then they went to the settlement, where the king stayed, and the boyars, and the metropolitan, and ordinary people. All with the sole purpose: to call the king to rule again. With tears in their eyes, people begged him to return and asked for forgiveness.Ivan the Terrible returned to reign, but only demanded that the three conditions mentioned above be fulfilled. That's when the oprichnina began.
The essence of the phenomenon
The king brought the richest, the most fertile and profitable lands into his oprichnina. And also a new social phenomenon, the "oprichnaya corps" appeared - one thousand young and strong people of noble origin, who became the personal army of the tsar, received for their service, besides their salaries, also the best land plots, evicting those to whom they rightfully belonged.
And it was here that the absolutism was fully manifested, the tsar single-handedly resolved all the issues relating to the internal policy of the state, the thought boyars should take care of the Livonian war. Oprichniki were obliged to perform only two functions: to protect the sovereign and get rid of the traitors. On black horses they raced through the streets of the capital with a broom and a dog's head attached to the saddle. This was a symbol of the fact that they would ruthlessly slaughter the traitors and sweep the treason out of the country. Oprichnina Ivan the Terrible, in short, the period was mournful and scary.
With treason (real and imaginary) and really fought very cruelly. People who were suspected of this crime were executed and their property confiscated. After some time, not only individual citizens or families, but even entire settlements were subjected to repression. Novgorod suffered more than others in this sense, three thousand people were killed here all at once, and all because the tsar was suspicious of Novgorod plotting with Poland.
The commanders of the guardsmen changed, and the meaning did not change, terror and terror swept across the country with fire and sword. No matter what the man of the tribe-tribe might be, even a nobleman, even a boyar, and even a peasant, then the threat was felt by him then everything, and it lasted for seven whole years.
Fortunately, the oprichnina had to be canceled, it led to the economic ruin of the country, and besides, the Russian government lost the war, and the Khan decided to go to war with Russia.
The consequences of the oprichnina Ivan the Terrible
The policy of the oprichnina Ivan the Terrible led to very disastrous consequences. She led the country into a severe economic crisis. Many villages were neglected because of the devastation of nobles, boyars and peasants, about ninety percent of arable land was not used.In the social sphere, there were also huge problems, the demography of the country as a result of the extremely unreasonable and suspicious policies of the king suffered greatly. The dead in these seven years were about fifteen thousand people.