Nukleus: what is it? Why do beekeepers need a nucleus?
To families in the apiary were strong andproductive, the beekeeper sometimes has to change the queens. The "Queen" of a hive may eventually lose productivity or, for example, fall ill. Therefore, in the apiary they always keep a few spare queens.
Nukleus - what is it?
To keep additional queens, as well asInfertile queens on apiaries use hives of a special design - nucleuses. Their distinguishing feature are mostly small sizes. Nucleus can be designed for the maintenance of one uterus or several.
Benefits of use
Previously, beekeepers for the maintenance of queens were used inmostly ordinary hives. The latter were simply divided into several sections, arranging in each summer. Over time, many owners of apiaries refused from this method of keeping queens. The fact is that the use of a separate nucleus in this case gives a lot of advantages:
The uterus is much better tolerated wintering. After nucleuses have small dimensions, and consequently, the heat inside them is kept better.
The uterus contained in the nucleus is differentgreater productivity. Such structures are usually well ventilated. And this, in turn, significantly reduces the risk of infection of bees with any diseases that affect development.
Nuclei are universal constructions. In addition to the content of the queens, they are often used as either snares or hooks for swarms.
Nuclei for bees: which is better?
If desired, the beekeeper can purchase aA special hive for queens, for example, via the Internet. Most often, beekeepers buy so-called micronuclei. Such hives cost relatively inexpensive - within 650-700 rubles. Most often in the Russian market there is Polish products of this type.
Such mini-nuclei are produced frompolystyrene and consist of a trough and four frames (collapsible and wooden). The advantages of such hives are, first of all, that for their first settlement, few bees are needed. Also, the advantages of these Polish designs are the presence of a lower tap. With this arrangement, the theft of honey by foreign bees from the hive is virtually impossible.
The main minus of mini-cores is considered to be thatthe uterus can not be held for too long. To take the queen from such a hive follows a few days after fertilization. The frames in the mini-cores are very small. And so the uterus quickly sows them and remains without "work." As a result, the "queen" can simply "fly away" from the hive.
In addition to mini, there are alsoLarge nucleuses designed to contain several queens. Such designs have the advantage that they can be used if necessary and as a normal hive for the family. The downside of large nukuleans is, first of all, the fact that a lot of bees are required to settle them.
How to do it yourself: materials
So, we told what isnucleus. What is it, now you know. Next, let's see how to assemble such a hive yourself. After all, specialized shops or mini-shops dealing with the manufacture of equipment for apiaries, unfortunately, do not exist in every village. When ordering the same nucleus via the Internet, it will most likely have to wait long enough.
Since the construction of such hives are relatively simple, many beekeepers prefer not to suffer with shipments or search for sold ready-made structures, but to collect them independently.
Materials for making cores are commonly used:
cantilever 40x40 mm for the frame;
Fibreboard for housing;
polystyrene or expanded polystyrene;
plywood for partitions;
piece of galvanized iron to protect the cover from moisture;
Racks and consumables.
Nuclei made of expanded polystyrene are warm and comfortable for families. However, the material is fragile, and bees sometimes begin to gnaw it. In order to prevent this, a chipboard housing is used.
It is relatively easy to make a nucleus with one's own hands. Such a hive can be designed for several queens or one.
You can make a nucleus with your own hands, for example, using the following technology:
At the first stage, the EPS sheets are made according to a preliminary drawn up drawing.
Further polystyrene foam parts are cut out.
The ends of expanded polystyrene in the required places are smeared with glue.
The details are tightly pressed against each other.
Make holes for the tapholes.
The dimensions of the hive are selected depending on the expected number of queens. But the standard size of the nucleus is 570x450 mm. With frames from this design, it will be more convenient to work later on.
After the expanded polystyrene base isready, you can start making the case. At first the skeleton is assembled. Then the bottom is stuffed from below. On it you need to fix the slats under the partitions (two at a distance of several millimeters from each other). Next, the walls are stuffed. Between the slats on the bottom inserted pre-cut from the plywood septum. A lid is made and covered with a tinplate. Make holes for the tapholes.
The finished housing is installed inexpanded polystyrene billet. The latter can simply be painted. But it is better to install the finished nucleus in a crate, for example, from a plywood box (with holes made for tap holes). In this case, the hive will be much more durable.
Here such here approximately way and are madenucleuses for bees with their own hands. To ensure that the heat does not go away from the tap in the winter, just below them on the wall of the hive, it is worthwhile to attach rotating small plates thicker than the diameter of the hole itself.
How to form?
How to make your own nucleus, what it is in general, it is now clear. But how to properly form such a hive? Populate bees in a nucleus approximately according to the following technology:
set in the aft compartment of the nucleus cups with syrup (for the family you need about 200 ml of the mixture, prepared in a 1: 1 ratio);
remove the newly born queens from the hives (in curlers);
close the tapholes (ventilation should remain open);
the bees are poured from the framework of the main hive inside and watered them with water (so that their wings get wet and they do not rise);
Collect the necessary number of bees in a glass (about 350 grams);
water the uterus (because it is barren, it can fly away);
pour out of the glass into the nucleus of the bees.
At the final stage, the uterus is filled into the nucleus. Bees are best taken from that hive, in which a new "queen" was raised.
Features of formation
Populate the nucleus with the uterus of the best youngbees. They are in the hive, usually in the furthest corner. In a simple beehive, the "queen" is usually populated after 2-3 hours. This is necessary in order to make the bees feel orphaned, but have not yet laid the mother liquor.
In the nucleus of the same "queen" is usually planted not earlierthan 6-8 hours after the colonization of the bees themselves. It takes such a long gap to make all the old insects fly back to the main hive. After 6-8 hours only young bees remain in the nucleus.
Sometimes bees are planted in nucleuses and indiscriminately. That is, both young and old. In this case it is desirable to populate the uterus in the nucleus before the bees. To ensure that the old insects do not return to their original place of residence, the nucleus should be brought to a cool place for a while.
Withdrawal of queens
Nucleus population - procedure relative tosimple. Getting spare queens for the apiary is somewhat more difficult. Derive these bees usually in 12-frame hives (a minimum of 8 frames with brood). This technology is used:
remove the old uterus from the family together with a certain number of bees (2-3 frames);
transfer a new hive for several days to the basement in order for the bees to forget the old place;
The queen cells laid by bees are transferred to the "cell";
"Cells" are moved back to the hive.
The mother-fruit is cut out neatly with a wide knifeadjacent cells. Cut through the honeycomb almost right through, so as not to damage the bottom. In the "cells" queen cells are located in a natural way - that is, vertically or at a slight angle. In the first three days, the outpatient uterus feeds itself. Later, workers start to feed it. Therefore, every "cell" should be placed and a little honey.
Fistulas are obtained in the manner described above. There are other, somewhat more sophisticated technologies for breeding such bees. Fistulas are easiest to obtain, but they usually differ not too large in size and not particularly high productivity.
Transfer of bees to the beehive
How to make a nucleus and how to form it, we found out. Now let's see how correctly to transplant the bees from this beehive to the main one. This operation is usually performed as follows:
a hive is collected;
with the edge set a stern frame with perga and nectar;
a dryer is installed next to it;
a transition is established under the frame;
Between the dryer and the aft frame, frames are installed from the nucleus.
Thus fill the hive completely. Remaining bees are driven from the nucleus through the lower opening.
Most often in the cores hold four"queen". Uterus from such a hive is used as follows. Three "krolev" spend the planned way. That is, they move to other hives or sell them. One bee is left in the nucleus itself. At the same time, remove the septa and connect the orphaned three families to the remaining uterus.
Instead of concluding
Well, we hope, we answered the main questionsarticles about what the nucleus is. What it is, how to make and how to use this device, it is understandable. And now you know that you can buy a special beehive of this purpose in a specialized store, and do it yourself. The nucleus construction is not particularly complicated. The main thing is to well insulate the beehive and provide bees with high-quality food at first. And of course, you should closely monitor the uterus in such a hive. The first time the nucleus is inspected is inspected the next day. Further inspection is carried out every 2-3 days. There is fertilization of the queens usually on the 10th day.