Nonclassical philosophy is a collectionvarious currents, schools, concepts that arose from the middle of the 19th century. This philosophy reflects all the radical changes in the society to which Western Europe was exposed at that time. First of all, it is worth noting the French Revolution of 1789, which dealt the first blow to the minds of people. Civil war and terror forced many thinkers of that time to think about the possibilities of science and reason. Separate philosophers such as Nietzsche and Schopenhauer began to talk about the doubtfulness of progress, the irrationality of history and the relativity of truth.
20 century was marked for man not onlygreat successes in science and art, but also a whole series of revolutions, wars, the collapse of the colonial system, the formation and disintegration of the socialist system and the emergence of a large number of global problems that cast doubt on the existence of the entire human race.
The war showed that knowledge of science canused to harm humanity, which also contributed to the rethinking of many spiritual values. There was a so-called revolution in the minds of people, which contributed to the emergence of computer technology and the media, as well as a huge leap in science. This was how the nonclassical philosophy was born.
All these processes were able to evade theclassical perception of the world. Many scientists and thinkers have revised the problems of the meaning of human life, the attitude of man to religion and death has changed. Philosophy began to change very quickly, there was a transition from old values to new ones. New problems and ways to solve them have come to the forefront. The philosophy of rationalism goes into the background and is almost entirely replaced. Thinkers of that time began to pay more attention to the existence of man himself and his freedom.
Nonclassical philosophy is conditionally divided into several programs that are aimed at a complete rethinking of classical philosophy:
- Socially-critical program, focused primarily on changing society. This includes such teachings as post-Marxism and Marxism.
- Philosophical irrationalism (irrationalist tradition). Supporters of this trend can be called such great thinkers as A. Schopenhauer, F. Nietzsche and S. Kierkegaard.
- The analytical program, which consists ofrevision of scientific and rationalistic priorities and different values. This program includes such teachings as analytical philosophy, pragmatism, positivism, postpositivism.
- An existential-anthropological program. It includes existentialism, psychoanalysis, phenomenology and hermeneutics.
The processes of decay of the classical model of philosophyoccurred on the background of cardinal changes in culture and society. The society is divided into 2 parts; one part is fighting for scientific and technological progress, and the other is against it. Thus, two societies are formed, differently perceiving scientific and technological progress - scientism and anti-centristism.
Representatives of scientism considered the scientificprogress as the highest value, and anti-scientists saw in science an evil force that threatens all of humanity. To date, science is far from the only method of knowledge of the world, although it is considered the most important. That is why, probably, many philosophers try to re-understand the teachings of the East and find a secret meaning in primitive religions.
Modern nonclassical philosophy is a completely new stage in the development of all mankind. With the advent of a new philosophy, new spiritual values and moral principles are formed.