Nobel Alfred: biography, personal life, inventions, interesting facts
An unusual monument has been erected on Petrogradskaya Square in St. Petersburg. It is a bronze tree of fancy shape, the roots of which go to granite. In the branches sits a big bird. On the verge of a pedestal there is an inscription Alfred Nobel. The biography of this person is filled with a variety of events. Consider some of them.
The embankment at the Vyborg side is directly related to the life and work of Alfred Nobel. Here until 1999 there was a machine-building plant known all over the world. It was founded in 1862. LudwigNobel. Alfred- the great scientist is his younger brother. The family has been in Russia for a long time. His father, along with his sons, was engaged in the industrial production of engines, components for mechanisms and machines. They worked in the oil sector.They were established mining, processing and transportation of raw materials. The family took an active part in equipping the Russian fleet and army with shells, mines, bombs. Meanwhile, the Nobels were not only engaged in commerce. They gave a lot of money and energy to charitable affairs. They established various scholarships, they funded research, contained medical and cultural and educational institutions.
The future great scientist spent his childhood in Stockholm. His father was EmmanuelNobel. Alfredby 1842 was one of 4 children who survived at the time of arrival in Russia. The need for relocation was associated with the plight of the family. Father was very talented. He understood in construction, architecture and many other areas. He tried his best to provide for his family. The latest attempt was the opening of the enterprise for the production of elastic fabrics. However, things did not go well, so the family moved first to Finland, which was part of Russia at that time, and then to St. Petersburg. Here actually grewAlfred Nobel. Nationalitydid not prevent him subsequently achieve outstanding success.
Stay in Russia
At that time, the Empire was on the rise. In Russia, the era of the formation and development of industry. At the new place, the family settled down quickly. My father began to produce lathes and equipment for them. In addition, he was engaged in the release of metal hulls for mines, invented them. The family settled in a big house. For children hired teachers. All the sons of Emmanuel were hardworking and talented people. From an early age, the love of work showed andAlfred Nobel. Interesting Factsabout his early years can be found in various sources. In one of them, for example, it is indicated that the future scientist was fluent in several languages. Among them were Russian, English, German and French. At age 17, Alfred went to the United States, Germany and France. For three years he continued his education.
Alfred Nobel: a scientist biography
After three years of study abroad, he returned to Russia and got a job at his father’s company, which produced ammunition for the Crimean campaign. At the end of the war in 1856, the manufactory demanded an urgent reorganization. This took up the brothers Robert and Ludwig. Parents with their younger children returned to Sweden.In Stockholm, a new era for the family. Parents settled in the estate in the suburbs of Stockholm. An experimental laboratory was created here. In it, the elder conducted his experiments with detonationNobel. Alfredsoon joined his father in research. At that time, black powder was used as the only explosive. In this case, the properties of nitroglycerin have already been described. In 1847 he was first synthesized by Italian chemist Askanio Sobrero. However, it was not possible to use nitroglycerin. The danger lay in the rapid transition of a substance into an exploding gas from any state.
The main part of the experiments conducted ImmanuelNobel. Alfredfirst engaged in the search for sponsors. In 1861, the patron was found. He gave the researchers 100 thousand francs. It should, however, be said that Alfred was not particularly interested in working with explosives. But at the same time he could not refuse his father to help. After 2 years,Alfred Bernhard Nobelcreated the first device to secure the work with nitroglycerin. The substance was placed in a separate, sealed tank.The detonator was placed in the next compartment - primer, which later began to pour from the metal. The device created almost completely eliminated the likelihood of a spontaneous explosion. With his subsequent improvement, black powder began to be replaced with mercury. During one of the experiments, an explosion occurred, which killed 8 people, including Alfred's younger brother, Emile. Father very hard suffered the death of his son. After a while, there was a shock that chained him to bed for almost 7 years. Emmanuel Nobel could not stand on his feet and died in 1872 in 71 years.
Love for books
Alfred Nobel had a love of reading. In his library, he included not only the scientific works of various authors, but also classical works. Nobel was very fond of French and Russian writers. Among them were Hugo, Balzac, Maupassant. Turgenev's novels Nobel read in both Russian and French. It is worth saying that he was not only a chemist, but also a philosopher. Nobel had a doctoral degree.
Alfred Nobel also showed interest in him. Dynamite - the substance patented by him - was not the goal of all his activities.In general, it can be said that commerce was a means of livelihood, and not a hobby. Quite possibly, he would become a writer. Unfortunately, only one of his works is preserved - a play in poems about Beatrice of Chechnya ("Nemesis").
Work after the death of the father
All,that Alfred Nobel invented, brought him a big income. At the same time, he himself exercised control over technological processes, selected personnel for the enterprise, corresponded with partners. Nobel showed exceptional responsibility. He followed accounting operations, advertising campaigns, product sales, participated in negotiations with suppliers.Inventions of Alfred Nobelused in a variety of industrial sectors. In this case, the scientist saw great prospects in the use of explosive compounds for peaceful purposes. Thus, Nobel dynamite was used in the mountainous region of Sulfur Nevada for laying railroad tracks.
First foreign enterprise
It was founded in 1865. The main office was located in Hamburg. It is worth saying that working with explosive compounds is never complete without accidents. Was no exception and a new venture.Nobel was forced to constantly address issues relating to security. His greatest desire was the creation of explosives, which would be used exclusively for peaceful purposes.
Trip to america
In the USA, Nobel went to 186. Here he wanted to found a new enterprise. However, the business world did not really like the entrepreneur. He formed the opinion that local merchants are too willing to receive money. Because of this, the pleasure of communicating with them disappeared. The actions taken by American businessmen darkened the joy of cooperation and constantly reminded them of their true goals.
In 1867 safe explosives were finally created. Nobel patented dynamite. He was a powder, which included nitroglycerin and a chemically inert substance. The latter was the mineral diatomaceous earth. These are the fossilized remains of a diatom (marine plant). Dynamite was poured into drilled holes and exploded using a cord connected to a detonator. This allowed the person to be at a safe distance from the epicenter.Nobel's invention is used in various fields today.
He became the next discovery. After the dynamite was created explosive jelly. He was a mixture of gunpowder and nitroglycerin. Subsequently, Nobel created a ballistic - smokeless explosives. A few years later it was perfected by Ael and Dewar. They created on the basis of ballistite cordite. Scientists have patented their invention as a novelty. However, this was incorrect, since its basis was ballistic. Nobel tried to challenge the patent in court, but the government of England opposed it, and the scientist lost. It should be said that he often had to enter into such conflicts.
Nobel opposed the provision of voting rights to women. He expressed great doubts about the reasonableness and effectiveness of the democratic model. At the same time, Nobel was against despotism. The employees of his enterprises were socially protected many times better than the staff of other owners. Nobel believed that a well-educated, having high moral principles, a well-fed and healthy person will bring much more benefit to the work,than the grossly exploited mass of illiterate people. He spent a lot of money on creating conditions for normal work. He paid special attention to security measures. Contemporaries called him a socialist. Although he did not consider himself so.
The good of society
Nobel believed that all his inventions should be used for peaceful purposes. In the second half of the XIX century, a steam engine was created. His appearance gave a huge impetus to the development of the economy. As a result, railways began to be built everywhere and tunnels made their way. In all these works, Nobel dynamite was used. The explosive was used in the clearing of canals, the deepening of the bottom of reservoirs during the construction of navigable waterways. If we talk about the military sphere, the Nobel believed that if both sides would have the same weaponry, then there would be no clash.
Error in obituary
At the beginning of his career as an industrial tycoon, Nobel did not plan to bequeath his capital to charity. However, his views changed in his declining years. In 1888, Ludwig died. The newspapers mistakenly posted a message about the death of Alfred. At the same time he was called a death merchant, a man who made his fortune on the blood. These messages shook the mother of Nobel. She fell ill and died a year later.Of course, Alfred himself also could not remain indifferent to the articles. He moved to Italy. There Nobel settled in San Remo, in a secluded villa. On it, he equipped the laboratory and set up experiments on the synthesis of rayon and rubber.
During his stay in San Remo, a scientist and entrepreneur began to ponder how to manage his fortune. By that time, a reliable enterprise management system operated, and profit distribution was monitored. I watched it all myselfAlfred Nobel. Nobel Prizeconsidered a key achievement of this person. In his last will, he indicated that a large part of his condition should go to reward great scientists and people whose work is aimed at strengthening peace. 31 million Swedish marks - the amount allocated for thisAlfred Nobel. Nobel Prizewas established in the field of chemistry, physics, medicine / physiology. The reward was also due to the person who created the outstanding literary work. The fifth part should be given to the one who made a significant contribution to the destruction of slavery, rallying the nations, promoting peace and reducing the number of armies.Alfred Nobel's testament contained his particular desire. He pointed out that the reward should be given to a person regardless of his nationality. That is, the main criterion should be achievement, not affiliation to any country.
Of course, the identity of this person aroused great interest among his contemporaries. And if everyone knew about his entrepreneurial and scientific activities, the intimate side was carefully hidden from outsiders. From existing sources it is not even possible to establish whether Alfred Nobel was married. The personal life of this man, however, took place. His first love was Anna Desri. She was the daughter of a pharmacist. There is evidence that Nobel even wanted to marry. There are two versions explaining why the marriage did not take place. According to one of them, Anna fell ill and died. According to another - she started a love affair with a certain Lemarge - a mathematician. According to rumors, this was the reason for the lack of achievements in this discipline in the bonus package. Another woman to whom the scientist had tender feelings was Sarah Bernard. Nobel saw her in the play and fell in love.The other woman who captivated Nobel is Sophie Hess. She was only 20. She worked in a flower shop. This novel might not have been known if Hess had not made a claim to the inheritance after the death of Nobel. According to sources, she was on its content for 19 years. Hess's neighbors appeared as Madame Nobel. However, the relationship was not officially registered. In 1876, Nobel met Berta Kinski. They could easily get engaged, but for unknown reasons, this did not happen. It is known that it was Berta who inspired Nobel to establish the award. It is worth saying that they maintained a good relationship until the very last day of his life. Bertha Kinsky was among the first people to receive a world prize. She actively participated in the case of preserving humanity from the beginning of the Third World War.