Moscow Choral Synagogue: Description of the Sight
In the Russian capital there are five synagogues. All of them are beautiful and original in their own way. But the Moscow Choral Synagogue is special. It is the oldest and largest of all the Jewish temples of the city. The main rabbinate of the country is located here. And there is also a Jewish children's home and a yeshiva religious school.
Why is the synagogue called choral? This is another feature of the temple. During the prayers of prayer, a small chorus of professional cantors sings. Visit the Moscow Choral Synagogue will be interesting not for Jews. The rich interior decoration of this prayer house is striking. Also interesting is the cathedral and outside. Its facade is somewhat like a museum, because its classical columns adorn it. And the dome gives the synagogue a similarity with the Orthodox Church. Only his crown is not the cross, but the star of David. The halls are like a Catholic cathedral. What, in fact, is this for the synagogue? Why is it so interesting? Read about this in our article.
Moscow Choral Synagogue: the address, how to get there
This main Jewish temple is located onIvanovskaya Gorka, in the Basmanny district of the capital. From a small elevation of beautiful views. Therefore, the temple has another name - "synagogue on the hill." The exact address of the prayer house is Bolshaya Spasoglinischevsky lane, 10. By the large silver dome and the columns decorating the entrance, you can not immediately determine that the Moscow Choral Synagogue is before you. How to get to the place, you can tell the locals. It's very close, literally two hundred meters from the metro station "Kitai-Gorod". You can get to the synagogue from the Southwestern Station. But the first option is better. It should be, leaving the metro station "Kitai-Gorod", go in the direction opposite to Ilinsky Square. The large Spasoglinischevsky lane, where the synagogue is located, is parallel to the Lubyanka Passage, on which the metro station and ground transportation stops are located.
The history of the Jewish community in Moscow
The capital of Russia has long been inhabited by people of differentnationalities and religions. But the Tsar-reformer Alexander II allowed Jews to live and work in Moscow only. Therefore, they began to settle here only in the second half of the nineteenth century. Near the place where the Moscow Choral Synagogue is now located, in Zaryadye, on the Glebovsky farmstead, there was a cheap hotel, as they say, the hostel. Jewish merchants who came to the capital on business there liked to settle there. After the withdrawal of the Pale of Settlement, Alexander II, this area gradually turned into a ghetto. The number of the Jewish community has become so large that it would be better to think about building a prayer house.
Peripetias in connection with the construction of the synagogue
A petition was made to build a Jewishtemple and received permission. Architect S. Eybushitts developed the project of the building. Chairman of the community L. Polyakov purchased a land for him. May 28, 1887 was laid foundation of the temple. It is known that in the eastern wall there is an ampoule with a letter about this event. The building itself was built in 1891.
It seemed that everything was going well, as herehappened unexpected - the king-reformer was killed. Following this, persecution of Jews began, again the Pale of Settlement was introduced. And then there was an incident with the Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich. He took the dome of the synagogue for the head of the Orthodox Church and crossed himself. Then he realized his mistake and became furious. Jews were asked to remove the dome, because it "offends the feelings of believers."
The community went for it - because synagogues do not havearchitectural canons. But it did not help either. The Ober-Procurator of the Most Holy Synod Pobedonostsev demanded to take pictures of the Mosaic tablets from the pediment. Then the Moscow Choral Synagogue was completely sealed.
A short "thaw"
Again holding worship services to Jews allowedOnly after the Manifesto of 1905, which allows freedom of religion. The building of the prayer house by that time had come into a significant decline. After all, it housed a real school. But the Moscow Choral Synagogue has become even more beautiful than the efforts of the architect Roman Klein, who trained at the famous Garnier, the author of the Paris Opera. It was from him that he borrowed the idea of retrospectivism. Light freely penetrates through the large oblong windows.
But this is a beautiful building in the style of eclecticismfunctioned as a synagogue for a short time. Already in 1922 the Soviet government banned worship services. The building was settled by Tekstilstroy. A part of the building was used by the Moscow underground for a reserve mine.
In 2001 the Russian Jewish Congress andthe community of Moscow, under the patronage of Mayor Yuri Luzhkov, began the reconstruction of the church. This project worth more than $ 20 million included the construction of an orphanage, a yeshiva, a community center. The silver dome was restored. Near the temple was opened the composition "Bird of Happiness" (sculptor I. Burganov). The hand that produces the pigeon is complemented by a symbolic little Wailing Wall made of crushed stone.
The Moscow Choral Synagogue itself is a photo of it.Demonstrates - is a domed building that resembles a basilica. There are four prayer halls in it. High vaults, columns and rich decoration immediately create a cheerful and solemn mood for the visitor. Particularly beautiful is the ceiling, decorated with carved ornaments. The main nave adorns the tree of Knowledge and Life. Striking is the snow-white Aron Kodesh, concealing the precious Torah scrolls behind the velvet curtain.
Moscow Choral Synagogue: Opening Hours
Gentiles can come to the prayer temple, but theirthey are allowed only to the gallery of the second floor. But from the height you can better consider the decor of the temple. During the services, photo and video are prohibited. From Monday to Friday, the morning minyan passes at 8:30, on Saturdays and holidays - at nine. The synagogue is open from morning till evening. After all, she has an orphanage, a religious school, a kosher restaurant, a library, and public clubs. It is the spiritual and cultural center of the Jewish community of Moscow.