What is modern pulp?
Pulp - what is it? This question is of concern to everyone involved in organic chemistry. Let's try to find out the main characteristics of this compound, to identify its distinctive features, the scope of practical application.
Chemical cellulose has the formula (C6H10ABOUT5)P. It is a polysaccharide that contains β-glucose residues. Cellulose is characterized by a linear structure. Each residue of its molecule includes three OH groups, therefore the properties of polyatomic alcohols are characteristic of this compound. The presence in the molecule of the ring aldehyde group gives the cellulose reducing (reducing) properties. This organic compound is the most important natural polymer, the main component of plant tissue.
In large quantities, it is contained in flax, cotton, and other fibrous plants, which are the main source of cellulose fiber production.
Technical pulp is isolated from woody plants.
Pulp production is covered in this separate section of chemistry. It is here that it is intended to consider the characteristics of the composition of the tree, its chemical and physical properties, methods for analyzing and isolating substances, the chemical nature of the processing of wood and its individual components.
Wood pulp is a polydisperse containing macromolecules of various lengths. To identify the degree of polydispersity used method of fractionation. The sample is divided into individual fractions, then their characteristics are studied.
Reasoning over what cellulose is, it is necessary to carry out a detailed analysis of the chemical properties of this organic compound.
Technical pulp can be used in the production of cardboard and paper, as it is subject to chemical processing without any particular problems.
Any technological chain relating to the processing of natural cellulose, is aimed at preserving its valuable properties. Modern processing of cellulose makes it possible to carry out the process of dissolving this substance, to produce completely new chemicals from cellulose.
What are the properties of cellulose? What is the process of destruction? These questions are included in the school course in organic chemistry.
Among the characteristic chemical properties of cellulose include:
- reactions involving functional groups.
During destruction, there is a break in the chain of the macromolecule of glycosidic bonds, accompanied by a decrease in the degree of polymerization. In some cases, possible and complete rupture of the molecule.
Options for the destruction of cellulose
Let us find out what the main types of destruction are cellulose, what is the gap of macromolecules.
At present, several types of destruction are distinguished in chemical production.
In the case of a mechanical variant, the C – C bonds are broken in cycles, as well as the destruction of glycosidic bonds. A similar process occurs during mechanical grinding of a substance, for example, during its grinding to make paper.
Thermal destruction occurs under the influence of thermal energy. It is on this process that the technological pyrolysis of wood is based.
Photochemical destruction involves the destruction of macromolecules by ultraviolet radiation.
For the radiation type of destruction of natural polymer, the presence of X-rays is assumed. This type of destruction is used in special devices.
When exposed to oxygen in the air, oxidative destruction of cellulose is possible. The process is characterized by the simultaneous oxidation of alcohol and aldehyde groups present in this compound.
Under the action of water on cellulose, as well as aqueous solutions of acids and alkalis, the process of cellulose hydrolysis occurs. The reaction is purposefully carried out in cases where it is necessary to conduct a qualitative analysis of the structure of the substance, but when cooking this substance, it is not desirable.
Microorganisms, such as fungi, can carry out the biological destruction of cellulose. To obtain a quality product, it is important to prevent its biological destruction upon receipt of paper, cotton fabrics.
Due to the presence of two functional groups in the molecules, cellulose exhibits properties characteristic of polyatomic alcohols and aldehydes.
Such processes imply the possibility of obtaining macromolecules with desired physical and chemical properties.
They are widely used in the industrial production of pulp, giving it new operational characteristics.
Alkali cellulose production
What is this pulp? Reviews indicate that this technology is considered the oldest and most common in the world. Nowadays, the polymer obtained in the manufacture of viscose fibers and films and the creation of cellulose ethers is improved by a similar method.
Laboratory studies have found that after such a treatment, the luster of the fabric increases, and its mechanical strength increases. Alkaline cellulose is an excellent raw material for the manufacture of fibers.
There are three types of such products: physico-chemical, structural, chemical. All of them are in demand in modern chemical production, are used in the manufacture of paper, cardboard. We found out what the structure has cellulose, what is the process of its production.