Mechanical energy. The law of conservation of mechanical energy. Application of law
What is the law of conservation of mechanical energy binds together different types of energy, consider them in more detail. Find out and the possibility of its practical application.
Features of the physical system
The mathematical formulation of the law of conservation of mechanical energy binds kinetic and potential energy.
The essence of the law is that it is allowed to transform one form into another form, while the total value remains the same. Different sections of physics have their own formulations of this law. For example, in thermodynamics, the first law is distinguished, in classical mechanics, the law of conservation is used, and in electrodynamics, calculations are carried out on the basis of the Poynting theorem.
How is mechanical energy determined? The law of conservation of mechanical energy is explained by the theorem of Neter.She explains the independence of the law regarding the time frame, other fundamental principles of mechanics. Newtonian theory is characterized by the use of a particular case of the law of conservation of energy.
How can you qualitatively describe this law? The sum of potential and kinetic forms in a closed system remains unchanged.
If the system is not affected by other forces, in this case, its disappearance is not observed, as well as its appearance. How was the justification of the law of conservation of mechanical energy? The laboratory activity of many scientists was based on the study of the transition of kinetic energy into a potential form. For example, when analyzing the state of the mathematical pendulum, it was possible to confirm the invariance of the total value of two types.
Basics of Thermodynamics
How is mechanical energy calculated? The law of conservation of mechanical energy can be applied to the first law of thermodynamics. The change in the internal energy of the system during its transition from one state to another through the sum of the amount of heat transferred to the system and the work of external forces is considered.
The law of conservation of momentum and mechanical energy explains the difficulty of obtaining an engine that runs continuously.
Study of the properties of liquids
For the hydrodynamics of ideal fluids, the Bernoulli equation was derived. Its essence is the constancy of a fluid having a uniform density.
How was mechanical energy studied? The law of conservation of mechanical energy was determined experimentally. At the beginning of the 19th century, Gay-Lussac tried to find a relationship between gas expansion and its heat capacity. He managed to establish the invariance of temperature in the process under consideration.
The history of the law
In the 19th century, after the experiments of M. Faraday, the dependence between different types of matter was revealed. These studies became the basis for the emergence of the law of conservation. What is total mechanical energy? The law of conservation of energy is called the result of experiments conducted by the French physicist Sadi Carnot. He tried experimentally to determine the relationship between the work done on the system and the amount of heat released.
It was Carnot who managed to establish the relationship between heat and work, that is, to formulate the first law of thermodynamics based on the law of conservation.James Prescott Joule conducted a series of classical experiments aimed at quantifying the heat released during rotation in the electromagnetic field of a solenoid with a metal core.
He managed to establish that the amount of heat released in the experiments is directly proportional to the value of the current, taken in the square. In subsequent experiments, Joule changed the coil to a load falling from a certain height. The scientist was able to establish a relationship between the amount of heat released and the mathematical indicator of the energy of the load.
Robert Meyer proposed an interesting hypothesis for the universal application of the law of conservation of energy. Being engaged in studying the functioning of human systems, the German doctor decided to analyze the amount of heat that the body releases as food is processed. He was interested in the amount of work done in this case. Mayer was able to establish a link between heat, work, confirming the possibility of using the law of conservation of energy for the processes occurring inside the human body.
Hermann Helmholtz gave the first characteristic of potential energy, based on the studies of Joule and Meier.In his reasoning, he was based on the connection of kinetic (living) energy with the forces of tension (potential energy).
The law explaining the immutability of the total indicator of several types of energy inherent in the system under consideration remains valid today. The discovery of the law contributed to the development of the physical sciences, became the starting point for the innovation processes considered in science and technology. It was the study of the law of conservation of mechanical energy, laboratory practice became a detailed rationale for the unity of nature.
He points to the regularity of the transition of one form to another, reveals the depth of internal connections between the forms of matter. Any phenomenon that occurs in animate and inanimate nature can be easily explained with the help of this law. The school curriculum pays special attention to the derivation of a mathematical record of the relationship between different types of motion, and the basics of the thermodynamic system are considered. At the unified state exam in physics, problems are proposed that involve the use of this ratio.
The processes that occur in the solar system associated with a change in the position of bodies over a certain period of time can be explained in terms of the basic physical rules.