Masonry mixes: brand, characteristics, application
There is an opinion that the durability and reliability of buildings depends on the quality of materials used in the process of work. Among them should be allocated blocks and bricks. However, this list can not be called complete, if not to mention the masonry mixtures. Thanks to them, the above elements can be connected together, getting a monolithic structure. But the masonry mortar will not be of high quality, if you pick it up incorrectly, so at the first stage it is necessary to become familiar with the varieties of this material, the features of its application and characteristics.
Masonry mixes act as an indispensable component in construction. They are usually classified into:
- cement lime.
Among themselves, these compositions differ in strength, which is different for each brand. For example, a mixture of brand M50 is used for laying bricks and stones. The mortar contains lime and cement.This solution allows you to rid the surface of roughness. In addition, the pressure between the bricks and stones is distributed evenly.
This masonry mix is used to fill the joints when the building elements do not fit together. In the future it is possible to achieve moisture resistance and durability of the building. Most often this solution is used in low-rise construction. Its preparation is carried out on the court.
A mixture of brand M75 and its application
This solution belongs to high-grade materials for super-strength and water resistance. The composition is used in the construction of foundations and ground structures for industrial and public buildings. The mixture is great for laying blocks, preparing the screed, strengthening the foundation and leveling the floor.
The material is a complex mixture, in the manufacturing process which uses special equipment. If the temperature of the outside air is reduced at the time of solidification, this will make the period of curing longer. Raise the temperature, too, should not, as the moisture begins to evaporate too intensely. Among the ingredients in the mixture brand M75 should be highlighted:
As for sand, the fraction should be 2.5 mm.
The use of a mixture of M100
Masonry mix M100 is today one of the most popular among other types of solutions. The structure is applied at construction of city and industrial buildings. Excellent material for laying exterior ceilings made of stone, brick columns, internal partitions and various blocks.
The solution is waterproof, so you can use it for the manufacture of plaster. The mixture is suitable for laying gypsum tiles, mosaics and surface leveling work. The material consists of water, sand and cement. The fraction of sand can vary from 0.5 to 1 mm. Due to the aggregate, the stability of the solution increases. For workability and increased softness, water emulsions and plasticizers are added to the ingredients, the first of which can delay the hardening of the composition.
A mixture of brands M125, 150 and 200
Masonry mix for brick M125 is suitable for the construction of walls made of stone and various blocks. Often used composition for laying gypsum tiles. The fraction of used sand can vary from 0.5 to 1 mm.Mix of the M150 brand differs in the increased hardness. Suitable material for masonry, and in domestic construction is used for ceramics and finishing of concrete structures. This mixture is good in that it does not exhibit sensitivity to low temperatures, but requires adhering to a temperature range from +5 to +35 ° C during the work.
Heat-resistant masonry mixture M200 differs by refractoriness and water-repellent characteristics. Use for the preparation should be washed mountain sand without organic compounds. Among other things, used shells and fragments of limestone, a fraction of which is about 3 mm.
Characteristics of dry mixes of cement and sand
Mixed dry installation and masonry cement-sand have different characteristics, which depend on the ingredient composition. For example, organic impurities should not be in mixtures of brands M100 and M150. The coefficient of stratification for all compositions without exception should not exceed 10.
The composition of the brand M100 you can buy at a lower cost for the reason that it contains lime, which reduces the proportion of cement.M150 acts as a universal compound, which in most cases can replace any other mixture. The recommended layer thickness in this case can vary from 5 to 50 mm. One square meter of the mixture consumption will be 16.5 kg. This is true, if the layer thickness is 1 cm. This brand of masonry mix will grab in 2 hours, while its hardening occurs in a day.
Compounds brand M200 are often called installation and masonry, they are available in several versions, each of which is designed to meet certain goals. The resulting stone is highly durable, and the estimated consumption reaches 8.5 kg per square meter with a layer thickness of 5 mm. The compositions of the brand M300 are also called peskobeton, their cost is slightly higher, and the area of use is not so wide. Mixtures are used where strength is important. As for plastering, the M300 is not suitable for them. The consumption of the screed is approximately 19.5 kg per square meter.
Characteristics of the clay-chamotte mixture
A mixture of masonry clay-chamotte is a heat-resistant heat-resistant composition with fire-resistant characteristics.Suitable mixture for stove laying and stands stove solution. This product can be used for masonry of furnace and other hot zones of heated objects, among them:
Among the ingredients should highlight the clay, sand and kamolin fire clay. This masonry mix for stoves and fireplaces retains its properties up to +1300 ° C. Color - ocher gray. The moisture content of the dry mixture does not exceed 3%.
Application temperature ranges from +5 to +60 ° C. The thickness of the layer should be equal to the limit of 10 to 12 mm. The mixture is completely dry in 50 hours. This masonry mix for stoves and fireplaces contains aggregate, the fraction of which does not exceed 1.25 mm. For 1 kg of dry mix you will need about 280 ml of water.
It is recommended to lay the composition on chamotte or ceramic brick. The base before applying the solution must be cleaned of dirt and dust, old plaster and lumps of solution. It is important to save products from emulsion and oil paint residues. Brick before laying must be soaked in water for 3 minutes.
What else you need to know about the clay-chamotte mixture
This brick masonry mix is consumed in a volume of 20 kg per 40 single items.To prepare the powder is mixed with clean water at room temperature, and then mixed to a thick cream. Mortar should be kept for one hour, and then add water to the desired consistency and mix again.
The material is applied with a trowel or trowel, and the jointing is done immediately during the masonry work. The first heating is recommended to be done only 48 hours after the completion of packing operations. The temperature should not be above + 300 ° C. In the subsequent time, the temperature is not standardized. If during the process the solution has thickened, then it must be diluted once more with water and stirred. Material is produced in bags, the volume of which is equal to 5 and 20 kg. Even after freezing and thawing, the composition retains its properties, as after wetting and drying.
Mix for ceramics
If you want to reduce heat loss through mortar joints, then you should choose a special masonry mix Porotherm TM, which is called warm. It is designed to work with ceramics. If you use the usual solution, then through the seams will leave about 15% of the total heat that leaves the house.The described masonry mixture for ceramic blocks has unique characteristics, because the ingredients contain expanded perlite. Its thermal conductivity can be compared with a similar characteristic typical of Porotherm ceramic blocks, their joint use and avoids cold bridges.
Composition for ceramics its characteristics
In order to verify the quality of the mixture, you can compare it with a conventional cement-sand mortar brand M100. The density of the latter will be 1800 kg / m3whereas the described warm mixture has a density in the range of 800 kg / m3. The thermal conductivity coefficient of a traditional mortar is 0.93 W / m * Co, while the thermal conductivity coefficient of a warm masonry mortar is 0.19 W / m * Co.
Modern homes are becoming more and more colored, it became possible to achieve this through pigments. Today, dark or white cement is used, which is complemented by polymers and dyes. Production produces a wide range of shades, they can be, for example, saturated green. Polymer additives fix the composition, so the seams do not change color even under the influence of precipitation.
For brick today, white masonry is produced; fine-grained sand acts as a filler for it, which is complemented by polymers. This provides low water absorption and high ductility. Different shades of the mixture allow you to combine the color of bricks and seams, embodying bold design solutions. If you use this composition only for jointing, you will be able to reduce consumption. An example is the PEREL SL 0001 masonry mix, which has a snow white hue.
Characteristics of the white mixture
The cost of one package is 560 rubles. The material can be used for bricks, the water absorption of which varies from 5 to 12%. The maximum fraction is 1.25 mm. As for the humidity of the dry mixture, it does not exceed 0.3%. Water consumption for mixing can vary from 0.15 to 0.18 liters per kilogram. The lifetime of the composition is equivalent to 2 hours. The mobility of the mortar mixture is equal to Pk2 (5 - 6 cm).
Before you start laying pieces, you must select a mixture. Experts recommend that you take this issue seriously, because different formulations have their own characteristics that determine their purpose.For example, some of them have heat-resistant properties, while others are designed to operate under normal conditions.