Lamblias in a child: methods of infection, symptoms, treatment
Giardiasis is a parasiticinfection, the causative agent of which is Giardia - a unicellular protozoan parasite. Lamblias in a child live in the small intestine and liver, causing malfunctions in the normal functioning of these organs.
Types of lamblia
Parasites are divided into two types.Mobile lamblia in children (photo shows them) have the shape of a pear, they have a rounded front end and a pointed back. The length is half a millimeter. The parasite has a disc that sucks up to the intestinal mucosa, and 4 pairs of flagella. If from the small intestine of lamblia penetrate into the thick, their modification takes place as a result of unfavorable conditions. Movable parasites are transformed into cysts, devoid of mobility. The shape becomes oval, and the length increases to a millimeter. Together with the calves, cysts are excreted from the body. However, in the external environment, they do not die immediately, and for a long time they retain the ability to infect others. When ingested into the human body, the cysts again acquire mobility.
Lamblias in a child: ways of infection
Parasites are most often disposed in sewagewater, on the surface of unwashed vegetables and fruits, on the dirty hands of infected children, in children's sandboxes. Proceeding from this, it is possible to distinguish three main ways of infection:
- water, when lamblia in the body penetrate when a child uses contaminated tap water;
- contact-household, when the transfer of cysts occurs directly from one child to another, including through dishes and toys;
- food, when a child eats unwashed vegetables and fruits that are contaminated with cysts.
Lamblias in a child: what's the danger?
Parasites, being in the body, takenutrients from the child's blood to be able to multiply. The lack of minerals and vitamins can lead to vitamin deficiency. But lamblia is not only taking the necessary substances out of the blood, but also releasing into it toxins that suppress the immune system and provoke the development of allergic reactions. Children with giardiasis more often than others are exposed to colds, bronchitis and dermatitis.
Giardia in children: symptoms
Treatment of Giardiasis will depend on the symptoms,which, in turn, depend on the form of the course of the disease. So, with the rapid development of pathology, due to the ingestion of a large number of cysts at once, an acute form of lambliasis is diagnosed. It is characterized by symptoms such as decreased appetite, fever (up to 39 ° C), nausea and vomiting. In addition, the baby may have rashes (similar to those that occur with rubella) and bloating. The acute form of giardiasis in most cases is susceptible to children under three years of age, since they still do not fully develop the immune system. But the correct diagnosis at this stage is rarely done. Most pathology is taken for acute intestinal infection. Without proper treatment, giardiasis becomes chronic. The child can periodically complain of abdominal pain, sometimes diarrhea occurs. Over time, weight loss occurs, the skin becomes pale, and the tongue forms a yellow coating.
Lamblias in a child: how to treat?
Curing giardiasis is not so easy.The child is prescribed antiparasitic drugs in a dosage adjusted individually depending on the weight, age and characteristics of the course of the disease. Somewhere on the fifth day of treatment there may be a worsening of the condition, but do not be afraid. This is due to the fact that lamblia in the child in the body begin to mass die and disintegrate, while harmful decomposition products get into the blood. To facilitate the condition, the doctor can prescribe the use of laxatives and antihistamines. Approximately on the ninth day the condition improves. But it should be remembered that giardiasis can always return, therefore, treatment should be carried out in a comprehensive manner, and compliance with hygiene rules will prevent re-infection.