Karyotype - an analysis that will reveal the secrets of heredity
Today often in fiction orDetective films often detectives find the true culprit of the crime helped by a study on karyotype - an analysis that allows you to study human DNA and compare it, if necessary, with control samples. Undoubtedly, genetic studies began to be widely introduced into medical practice with the creation of appropriate equipment, research techniques and the emergence of a generation of specialists able to work with this equipment.
Studies on karyotype - an important method of genetic diagnosis
Karyotype research in medical practiceis one of the stages of medical genetic counseling. The very principle of research is based on the fact that in the cells of any living organism the composition of chromosomes, carriers of genetic information, remains unchanged throughout life. Every living being, regardless of the species, receives from his parents half of the chromosome set, which is connected at the time of fertilization - from this moment the development of a new organism begins. The number of chromosomes and their characteristics remain unchanged throughout life. Actually, that's why every person has to carry out a karyotype study only once in his life.
The analysis can be performed with cells of any organhuman - the composition of chromosomes remains unchanged regardless of the tissue and method of sampling. This research is in demand in medicine, where such a modern diagnostic method is used to identify possible genetic diseases both in the patient himself and his relatives. This analysis has found application in criminalistics, where the karyotype of cells is used in various examinations and forensic medicine.
How the study is conducted
It is necessary to know that, if necessary, researchyou can expose any cells of the human body, and in some cases even dead cells (hair, nails, epidermis). But the speed of obtaining the result depends on how intensively the cells of this or that tissue of the human body are divided. After all, only with the nuclei of frequently dividing cells can a rapid test for karyotype. Analysis, even with a favorable combination of circumstances, will take some time - at best, the full result of the study can be obtained in hands in 25-30 days. In forensic practice, rapid tests can be used - they require less time, but their result requires additional testing in the normal mode.
The research is conductedcultivation of the sampled material in the laboratory. Cultivation of cell culture is carried out on special nutrient media and only under laboratory conditions. Most often, the study takes blood - capillary (very rarely) or venous, less often - scraping from the mucous membrane of the mouth. The analysis of blood on a karyotype in modern medical practice is most often used for medical genetic counseling. Such a method of obtaining the material helps to obtain a sufficient number of cells (most often leukocytes) that will be grown in the laboratory, fixed, stained with special dyes and examined.
When karyotype analysis is important
It often turns out that in infertility of the conjugalpairs are to blame for chromosomal changes in the cells of one of the potential parents, so when infertility or habitual miscarriage of pregnancy, a karyotype is examined. The analysis is usually prescribed in a complex of instrumental and laboratory studies, but it should be done only in the direction of the doctor, after the examination and routine tests.
This analysis is also necessary when identifyinghereditary pathology, especially transmitted by autosomal recessive type (the disease occurs only when "meeting" two pathological genes). Today, this study can be assigned to both the newborn child and the person throughout his later life, and the fetus - during the invasive diagnosis. In this case, the material for analysis becomes amniotic fluid, placenta or chorionic particles.