Jean Jaures: brief biography
Jean Jaures was a famous leader of the world socialist movement. He was one of the first to formulate the principles of anti-capitalism and pacifism, defending them in the French parliament.He made a huge contribution to the development of the "left wing" philosophy. He wrote many scientific papers on philosophy and history. He became one of the symbols of resistance to the fratricidal slaughter that swept Europe in 1914.
Biography of Jean Jaures
Born on the third of September, 1859 in Lagendok. His father was a merchant, but things were not going too well. Since childhood, Jean has shown an interest in science and education. At the age of eighteen he enters the University of Paris. Studies philosophy, history, pedagogy and other humanities. Four years later he graduated from the course of study and the degree of candidate of philosophical sciences. Immediately after this, he began teaching at the Albian Lyceum. Two years later, Jean Jaures moved to Toulouse, where he got a job at a local university.
Period of idealism
In his youth, Jaures was a very confident idealist. He defended the primacy of the idea before matter, however, no works were preserved describing his position on this question more specifically. But in 1885 his views change. Being in Toulouse, Jean Jaurès is increasingly left “left” on a political issue. He begins to use the Marxist principle to understand historical processes. This is not a supporter of Marx. The latter is an ardent materialist, which is unacceptable for Jaures. Therefore, the Frenchman is trying to find the concept of reconciliation of Marxist views and idealism. Such attempts are most pronounced in the argument of the philosopher with Paul Lafargue.
In the eighty-fifth year begins to actively participate in political life. He is elected to parliament, but is not a member of any party. He publicly expresses support for socialist ideas, but did not define his position specifically. Therefore, other socialists did not consider Jaurès for his. But already then the oratorical skill of the philosopher was manifested. They paid attention to him, but due to the lack of a clear position, Jean Jaures did not play a big role in parliament.
The beginning of the socialist path
After the first three years in politics, Jaurès is increasingly inclined towards the socialist worldview. He actively protects social reforms and participates in the struggle for workers' rights.Photo by Jean Jaurès increasingly appears in the French press. He gets the image of a great speaker. His speeches impress the socialists, for which they are more and more sympathetic to him, despite the idealistic component of his views. In the ninety-second year there is a serious turn in the views of Jean. He writes a philosophical dissertation on socialism in Latin, which is published in Toulouse. By this time he is already becoming deputy mayor for the education of the people. Actively developing a local university. During one of the largest strikes of the nineties, he supported the protesters. After their victory goes to parliament as an independent socialist.
The leader of the left forces
After a new election to parliament, Jaures becomes the main figure in the camp of the socialists. He is recognized as the leader of all socialist parties. Despite this, the politician did not clearly formulate his views and reasons for sympathizing with socialism.Nevertheless, he is actively engaged in uniting all the left for the sake of fighting the existing system. Popularity in the circle of radicals is largely provided by the oratorical skill of the philosopher. His loud speech affects not only the socialists, but also the bourgeois intelligentsia of other views. As a driving force for the struggle for the social rights of the people, Jaures calls "social hatred", which undoubtedly echoes the class struggle of Marx.
Against the system
In the ninety-seventh year, the whole of French society embraced a discussion of the so-called Dreyfus affair.Alfred Dreyfus worked at the General Staff. In 1894, there was a leak of secret information to the German ambassador in Paris. At that time, Germany was considered a potential adversary of France, so the country's leadership began an immediate investigation. Dreyfus turned out to be extreme and was convicted of espionage. However, many public figures noted the dubious nature of the evidence provided by the investigation. Three years later, the Dreyfus rehabilitation campaign began. Jean took an active part in it, believing that the leak was just a backstage game of the French elite, and Alfred just turned out to be a scapegoat.
The split of the left and the creation of a coalition
The radical position of the policy on the Dreyfus case caused a split among the socialists. Many centrists began to oppose Zhores, and the radicals, on the contrary, began to support him. Despite this, in the ninety-ninth year he succeeds in creating a united socialist bloc, which includes both radicals and social democrats. After that, the new faction is actually pushing its government. Four years later, Jaures spoke at the Amsterdam Socialist Congress with sharp criticism of the German left. They adhered to the position of a radical struggle against the bourgeois parties, but at the same time could not get a serious political influence in the country, despite the strong support from society.
In the same year, attacks by the Social Democrats in France begin. The idea of compromise with the liberal bourgeois parties sharply criticizes Bebel. In 1905, the hostility between France and Germany was growing, fueled by the governments of both countries.Zhores founds his newspaper "L'manite", which in a short time becomes the most popular left-wing publication in the country. He is invited to Germany by the German socialists.Jean Jaures briefly describes his views on the relationship between these two peoples, which causes discontent of the German government. Despite all the difficulties, Jaures still arrives in Berlin and makes a fiery speech about the peace and unity of the proletariat. Speech is becoming very popular among the left and causes resentment of nationalists on both sides.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, historical works published by Jean Jaures appear. The "socialist history of the French Revolution" is becoming very popular both at home and abroad. In his public activities, the philosopher pays more and more attention to the problems of militarism. As a pacifist, Jean actively opposes the intensification of militaristic hysteria. He actively campaigns for negotiations with Germany in order to find a compromise.In May, the thirteenth year, organizes a huge anti-war rally in the center of Paris. The French government sees danger in Jaures and regularly invites him to renounce his convictions.
In the thirteenth year, the war is literally in the air. Therefore, many leftists devote all their activities to anti-war propaganda.When the escalation of the conflict began in Europe, many leftists came up with a resolution on the joint struggle of the proletariat against the war, signed by Jean Sebastian Jores. Biography policy is not like the life of a typical radical. But despite this, Zhores died not his own death, and the reason for this was his views.
The murder of the philosopher on the eve of the war
Jean received threats in his address throughout the year. France was seized by nationalist hysteria.Nationalists hated pacifists, and the government only incited such sentiments. As a result, the thirty-first of July 1914, Jaures was killed in the center of Paris by the nationalist Raoul Willen.
In the mid-twentieth century, Jaurès was rehabilitated. Streets in France, Germany and the territory of the former Soviet Union are named after him. He became a true symbol of the struggle for humanity in a fratricidal war. In Paris, he erected a monument.A brief biography of Jean Jaures was presented in Soviet textbooks on history and political science.