Japanese coins: name, description and cost
Today Japanese yens are of great interestas among various banks, speculators, large investors, and among collectors. The first appreciate her for stability, and the second - for the beautiful design, especially the commemorative coins. But which way did the yen go for its rather short life? About this and this article will tell.
Japanese or Chinese coins?
The history of the development of money in Japan repeatsChinese, only with a certain delay. The reason for this is the policy of isolation, which Japanese rulers tried to adhere to for centuries. For example, it is believed that the first coins began to appear in China in the X century BC. At the same time, the Japanese paid with each other rice, as well as other valuable goods, even arrowheads were used. Again, the first coins came to Japan from the continent. Even the name of the modern yen comes from the Chinese word "yuan". Total until the VIII century coins came to Japan from the mainland. It was in the 8th century that the first Japanese coins began to appear. They were exactly the same as Chinese, in terms of size, and in terms of appearance.
In the Middle Ages, there were manyany coins that can not be listed at a time. The first attempts to create at least a semblance of its own monetary system were implemented during the Tokugawa shogunate in the 17th century. Then coins were produced from gold, silver and bronze, which were exchanged for a completely changeable course and did not have any rigid binding. In the middle of the XIX century, Japan ceased to adhere to the policy of isolation from the Western world, for its economy it became almost fatal.
The fact is that in the Land of the Rising SunThe ratio of gold to silver was 1: 5, and in the meantime in Europe - 1:15. Merchants began to massively buy gold and take it out of the country. To attempt to resolve this situation, a Mexican dollar was introduced into circulation, which was started to be minted in Japan. Meanwhile, numerous feudal governments began to produce their own coins. Japanese finances began to actively fever, and any money began to depreciate.
The appearance of the yen
The only solution in this situation wasthe introduction of a single monetary system, but this meant the creation of a centralized power, which was highly unsuitable for various Japanese feudal rulers. Only after the Bosin War (Civil War in Japan, 1868-1869) and the victory of the forces that supported the imperial power, it became possible to carry out monetary reforms.
The main problem was a complete absenceany monetary system. The authorities had to withdraw all banknotes and create a single national currency, which became the yen. We minted it in the image and likeness of the same Mexican dollar. It was attached to both gold and silver. This was done to prevent new currency crashes. A little later, this binding was canceled, and Japanese coins began to be equated with gold and the US dollar.
The yen is now
The modern history of the yen began after the endSecond World War. Japan was defeated by the Allies to the nines, the economy lay in ruins. Along with the highly depreciated yen, the occupation authorities introduced the currency of the same name only with the "B series" note. According to the exchange rate, 360 yen were given for one dollar. After the end of Japan's occupation of allies and subsequent economic growth, the Japanese currency began to strengthen in the world market. The popularity of the yen is indicated by the fact that for several decades it was the second most important reserve currency in the world.
Japanese Yen Coins
At the moment in circulation are coinsthe nominal value is 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500 yen. Coins worth 1 yen are made of aluminum. On its obverse there is a young tree, the denomination and the name of the country, and on the reverse there is also the face value and the year of manufacture. 5 yen are made of copper and zinc alloy. On the obverse there is a denomination and ears of rice, and on the reverse is the name of the country and the year of manufacture. Coins with a face value of 10 yen are also made of copper and zinc alloy, but with a small addition of tin. On its obverse, in addition to the denomination and the name of the country, is depicted the famous Buddhist temple Bědo-in, which is a part of the UNESCO World Heritage. On the reverse are placed face value, laurel wreath and year of manufacture.
50 yen are made of the so-called nickel silver(alloy of copper and nickel), as well as coins with a nominal value of 100 yen. By the way, their appearance is not much different: both on the obverse are the denomination and the name of the country, and on the reverse - the denomination and the year of manufacture. These coins differ in the colors that are depicted on them. On 50 yen it's chrysanthemum, and on 100 yen it's sakura. In addition, coins with a face value of 50 yen have a hole in the middle.
The largest coins in circulationthe dignity of 500 yen in different years were produced from different metal. The 1982 coins were made from the same nickel silver, and those that began to be produced in 2000 include copper, zinc and nickel. And the appearance is the same: on the obverse there is a denomination, the name of the country and paulownia, and on the reverse side - face value, bamboo, mandarin and year of manufacture.
The cost of Japanese coins
How much do Japanese coins cost? Of course, it all depends on what the circulation was, whether the yen is dedicated to any significant event, the metal from which it was made, antiquity and so on. In addition, the value of the coin is affected by its condition.
For example, the 1st issue of the year 1883 may haveprice in the range from 370 to 1902 rubles, depending on the security. One of the most expensive Japanese coins is 10,000 yen in 1986. They were issued in a circulation of 10,000,000 pieces in honor of the 60th anniversary of the reign of Emperor Hirohito. Coins were made of silver of 999-th test, weigh 20 grams and have a diameter of 35 millimeters. The cost ranges from 8 000 to 11 300 rubles per unit.
Also very much appreciated the anniversary 1000 yen of 2003release. Their circulation is very small - only 50 000 copies. They were issued in honor of the 50th anniversary of the annexation of the Amami Islands to Japan. On the Japanese coins issued in that symbol year, a colored image of a bird and a flower is placed. They are also made of silver of 999-th test, weigh 31 grams and have a diameter of 40 millimeters. The price for commemorative coins varies from 400 to 600 rubles per unit.