Is the head of state an unconditional ruler or a mere formality?
The head of state is not only the highestposition in any state, but also an independent constitutional body, which is obliged to represent the state both within the country and outside it.In various countries, in accordance with the Constitutionthe chief official can be either an integral part of the parliament, that is, directly by the legislative power (without the consent of the law is not valid), as the head of the state of the UK or may be both the head of state and the head of executive power, as in the US or Egypt. Sometimes he can only be the head of the country and not enter any of the branches of power, as the head of the state of Germany. In Japan, the head is a direct symbol of all statehood, and in France he is seen as an arbiter who assesses the activities of other institutions of the country. The sole and unconditional ruler is the head of such states as Saudi Arabia or Oman.
The head of state can be both collegialselected, or single. In the first case it is the organ of the parliament, in the second case - the monarch or the president. The first option is very often met in the past in those countries where totalitarian socialism dominated - the USSR, Poland. Now a similar type of government can be seen in Cuba, where power is concentrated in the hands of the State Council.
Cuba does not have a president. And the head of state is the chairman of the State Council. The chief official in China is the chairman of the republic, who is elected by the parliament. But it is worth noting that most of the functions are carried out with the direct participation of the Parliament Standing Committee.
In Iran, powers are divided between the president andhead of the republic. The latter is elected from the highest representatives of the clergy. The head of state of Switzerland is the president, but he is elected only for one year, and he has no substantial powers. The UAE has a so-called "collective" monarch, and Malaysia - an elected one.
In countries that belong to the BritishThe Commonwealth, all the powers of the head of state are in the hands of the British monarch, but his representative, the governor-general, exercises power. It is approved directly by the monarch according to the recommendations of the local government.
Often, after military coups, power in thethe country passes into the hands of the military council - the junta. The junta, in turn, independently appoints the president. This happened in most countries of Latin America, Asia and Africa.
Regardless of the variety, the heads of statehave some common functions and powers. Speaking about the parliament, the heads of state convene sessions of the parliament, have the right to dissolve, and sometimes impose the right of veto. They can also form a government, have the right to dismiss ministers, select judges, take decisions on the granting of citizenship or granting political asylum. Representing the state at the international level, can enter into all kinds of international agreements, as well as appoint diplomatic representatives.