Installation of sewage: the main stages of work, tools
Installation of sewage, whether it is centralized or local, involves the laying of pipes. The centralized system is usually settled in apartment buildings, in rare cases in village buildings and country cooperatives. In this case, the system is connected to a common stand. If this is not possible, then you will have to equip an autonomous sewer.
The risers of the local sewage system are assembled for operation together with cesspools and septic tanks. Such elements should be removed from the house by 10 m and more, and they should not be brought closer to the reservoirs by more than 30 m.
Scheme of domestic sewage
Installation of sewage is carried out after drawing up the scheme. Sewer risers will be set in motion by gravity. The flow path from one point to another will be possible only if the latter is located at a lower level.
Depending on the orientation in space, sewer pipes can be laid vertically or almost horizontally. In the first case we are talking about risers. The pipes of the internal system are supplied to them. This part is a collector. The riser in the apartment is a part of the general sewage system.
In the country house should also be a riser, if you want the sewage system to work properly. The diameter of this part should be 5 cm or more. In those places where the toilet is installed, the above parameter is increased to 10 cm. Through the roof, the riser is brought outside for ventilation. The top of the pipe has an opening and is located to the nearest window of 4 m or more.
The remaining pipes during installation of sewage are located almost horizontally. It is important to observe a small bias. The angle is selected taking into account the diameter of the pipe. If this parameter does not exceed 5 cm, then the slope should be 3% per 1 m. With an increase in diameter, the slope becomes equal to 2%. If these parameters are not met, then the natural runoff will be disturbed, and waste pipes will stagnate in the pipes. With a more impressive slope with runoff problems will not arise, but sanitary fixtures should be raised high above the floor level.
Installation of sewage in a city apartment is carried out by three highways going from the riser. This allows you to connect with a group of sanitary devices. The first highway will be the shortest, it usually leads to the restroom. Connect to it:
The second branch will go to the kitchen, a dishwasher and a washing machine will be connected to it, as well as a sink. The third line goes to the bathroom. It connects to the shower, sink and bath. Installing pipes in a country house allows you to get more freedom in terms of placement of sanitary appliances, because in this case you can install the required number of risers.
From the internal highways will go branching, which are also called sockets. They are necessary for connecting devices. Each branch ends with a water seal. Siphon or water trap is a mandatory unit for connecting a sanitary device. It is necessary for the formation of a water plug, which prevents unpleasant odors from entering the premises. A trap may not be present if electrical devices with non-return valves are connected to the system.
Preparation of tools
Installation of sewage systems begins with the preparation of tools and materials, among them:
Reverse and air filters may not be provided by the project. But the angle grinder with a special disc is definitely needed. As for pipes for installation of sewage systems, it is necessary to purchase products with different diameters. For example, 50 mm should be bought for drainage from household and plumbing appliances. 110 mm pipes are removed from the bidet and toilets. For the riser will need the same diameter.
All branch pipes are installed with a slope. If the diameter is 50 mm, then the minimum slope reaches 0.025, the normal value is 0.035. With an increase in diameter up to 110 mm, the minimum and normal slopes are 0.012 and 0.02, respectively.
The main stages of work when laying domestic sewage
Installation of internal sewage is carried out according to a specific algorithm. At its first stage, horizontal and vertical pipes are installed in the basement. They will exit the basement under the floor and go from the exhaust pipe, heading for the treatment plant.
After wiring, risers are installed in the basement, and then horizontal branch lines in the building. Gray plastic pipes with a diameter ranging from 40 to 110 mm are used for the internal system. The intermediate values are 50 mm.
Laying of pipes for domestic sewage
Installation of sewer pipes should not be accompanied by the presence of right angles in the joints and turns, because such an arrangement of knees will contribute to the formation of blockages. To rotate the pipe at a right angle, you must set two turns, each of which will be equal to 45 °.
If you plan to carry out installation of plastic sewage, then for the connection it is necessary to use couplings and sockets. The latter method is the simplest. In this case, the extension at the end of the pipe is connected to another pipe. The rubber ring is inserted into bell-shaped grooves for sealing. For a larger seal, the compound is treated with a sealant.
Coupling connections are made by analogy. For convenience and the possibility of repairing the pipe section, we use strippers. The installation of sewage in the house is carried out with socket connections.At one end of the pipe is a cut with a facet. The other piece of pipe must have a sleeve with a sealing ring. The product is inserted into the connecting sleeve, and then the pipe is removed by 1.5 cm. This allows you to get a damper gap.
Due to the fact that plastic pipes are characterized by a large coefficient of thermal expansion, the length of the end of the product that is inserted into the coupling can be increased to a few millimeters. If there is no gap, the pipes will be skewed. At connection of washing and dishwashers the flexible sanitary eyeliner is used.
Installation of water supply
Installation of plumbing and sewage necessarily involves design. It is important to choose the option of execution. Connecting the line to sanitary devices can be done in a closed or open way. The first option is more complex, it provides professional performance and accurate calculation.
All pipes that will be cleaned into the wall should not have joints, they are made from a single piece. Connections should be available for prophylaxis and inspection. A simpler option is open wiring.It provides for the laying of pipes in the vertical planes at the corners, and in the horizontal - at the level of the floor. This approach allows you to make the layout less visible. An open system is easy to install and easy to repair and maintain.
The sequential or tee system provides for leading the pipeline to water points from the main line. From the riser with a locking device, two pipes run off, one of them from the cold, the other - with hot water. Water pipes are diverted from them with the help of tees.
Features of the construction of water supply using a parallel circuit
Parallel wiring may include a collector. This is the only input and several conclusions, the number of which will depend on the number of water consumption points. Each water intake connects to its output. The advantages of the system are obvious and expressed in the fact that there is no need to disconnect the entire system for maintenance and repair.
All control devices are collected in one place - collector cabinet. Outlets can be supplied with metering devices or pressure regulators for a given water pressure.The disadvantage is a large number of divorces and a higher system cost.
Connecting the toilet using a corrugated pipe
If you connect the toilet to the sewage by using a corrugated pipe, then it must be inserted into the sewer pipe. The dock is treated with silicone. The toilet is connected to the second part of the corrugations. The reliability of the connection should be checked by typing water in the tank or pouring a bucket of water into the toilet. It is important to trace if there are any leaks.
At the next stage of connecting the toilet to the sewage system, it is necessary to plan places for drilling in order to fix the appliance with dowels to the floor. The lavatory is set aside, and holes are drilled in the planned places, where dowels can be inserted. The toilet is located in its place, a corrugated pipe is connected to it, which is treated from the inside with a sealant.
Leak test and fixture
Connecting the toilet bowl is accompanied by checking the reliability of the connection. If no leakage has been detected, and the water passes normally, then all mounting screws can be fixed. After installing the toilet should check its stability.If it was noticed that the instrument was swinging, then it must be installed and a cement mortar coupler must be made under the device. The connection should be completed by sealing the joint with the floor covering with silicone or sealant.
Price of installation of sewage system
The price for the installation of sewage is usually specified in rubles per linear meter. Laying a pipe with a diameter of 50 mm will cost 150 rubles. With increasing diameter up to 100 mm, the cost increases and becomes equal to 300 rubles. per meter
The cost of connecting devices
Installation and connection of a washbasin costs 1750 rubles. The urinal and toilet can be installed and installed for 1750 and 2100 rubles. respectively. If you purchased a toilet with an installation, then its installation will cost more - at 3200 rubles. The mixer can be mounted for 1000 rubles.
Domestic sewage is a collection of fittings and pipes that are used to drain sewage from plumbing fixtures. The devices are equipped with siphons to prevent the penetration of odor inside. The central discharge channel of the system is the riser. He can be one for the whole house.
However, if the building is too large or the bathrooms are at a considerable distance from each other, then there may be two or more risers.They are vertical pipes, starting in the basement and ending at the roof. The top of the riser should be 0.5 m or more above the roof.