Important concepts of didactics: didactic principles of teaching, means and methods.
Didactics is the branch of pedagogy, whichis entirely aimed at careful study, as well as the disclosure of all the theoretical foundations of the organization of the learning process. Its most important concepts are called not only the learning process as a whole, but also its principles, methods, means, content and forms. Didactics as a science is called upon to answer questions: where to teach, to what, how, in what particular forms and whether it is necessary in general?
Didactic principles of teaching are beforeall basic principles and guidelines, the task of which is to name a certain system of basic, initial didactic requirements for the learning process, its content, means, methods, forms and methods of its organization.
Didactic principles of training should knoweach teacher to conduct successful and useful teaching activities. The first principle is purposefulness. He demands that the content of upbringing and education correspond to the forms and methods of their organization. In addition, training should correspond to the main tasks of all secondary specialized educational institutions, as well as the curriculum and programs.
The didactic principles of teaching continuescientific principle. He says that the student must have a system of theoretical knowledge. In addition, the facts, patterns and phenomena should be reliable, and practical actions and conclusions are scientifically substantiated. The next principle is the connection between learning and life. It says that the educational process is professionally directed. In addition, he says that it is necessary to clearly understand, where exactly in life it is possible to apply the received knowledge.
The didactic principles of teaching continuethe principle of consistency and consistency. This means that the training material is strictly and logically located within the curriculum. In addition, students must consistently master the skills, knowledge and skills, and at the same time apply them in practice. There is also the principle of consciousness and activity, accessibility, visibility, durability, integrated approach, developing and educating education. All the above didactic principles of education are the core of pedagogical technologies of our time.
Didactic teaching aids are also verythe widespread notion of didactics. It means the totality of all elements of the learning environment that are consciously used by the teacher for fruitful interaction with students and the purposefulness of the educational process. Teaching tools include teaching aids, textbooks, dictionaries, textbooks, handbooks, visual aids. In addition, they include a variety of laboratory equipment in the study of chemistry, physics. There are also technical training aids - tape recorders, televisions, microscopes, computers.
Didactic teaching methods do not have a singlesystem. On this question different opinions differ. But it is conventionally accepted to distinguish four main groups of teaching methods. The first is an explanatory-illustrative, that is, an explanation, a story, work with textbooks, a lecture. The second is problematic, that is, the solution of various problem situations, questions and tasks. The third is heuristic or partially search, that is mastering the elements and individual stages of the process of scientific cognition or search. The fourth is research, it means that the problem is solved by the students themselves, but under the strict guidance of the teacher.
Thus, didactics is a division of the science of pedagogy, which is a theory of education and training.