HPP Ust-Ilim: location, power, photo
The Ust-Ilim hydropower plant is a near-high-pressure type of hydroelectric power station, located above the mouth of the Ilim River, which is one of the tributaries of the Angara. It became the final stage of a cascade of hydroelectric power stations built at the First stations were the Irkutsk and Bratsk hydroelectric power stations.
Studies of the Angara River began in 1931. As a result of large-scale surveys, a scheme for the use of natural resources was developed. The development of the natural energy potential began in the postwar years, making amendments and clarifications. Construction work at the Irkutsk power station began in 1949, after seven years the station produced an industrial volume of current.
The next link in the cascade is the Bratsk Hydroelectric Power Plant. The first unit on it was launched in 1961, the commissioning of all facilities took place in 1967. Reconnaissance of the area and possibilities for laying the Ust-Ilim station began during the construction of the second stageAngarsk cascade of power plants. The preparatory stage started in the winter of 1962, the equipment arrived along the winter route. Later, a special fleet was set up for the delivery of cargoes, plying from the city of Bratsk. Large-sized building assemblies, working machines were delivered by water, and specialists in the construction of similar facilities were involved.
The Ust-Ilimsk hydropower plant acquired certain outlines in March 1966, when the main structures began to appear, a foundation pit was laid, and the launch of the Angara was completed in the winter of 1967. Poured earthen bridges, limiting the pit on the left bank, allowed to start casting a concrete dam. These works started in April 1968. The first overlap of the Angara was carried out in August 1969, during the same period the laying of the right bank pit, the station part of the hydroelectric station and the dam occurred.
Progress and innovations
The construction of the Ust-Ilimsk Hydroelectric Power Plant was based on the Bratskgesstroy base of management. For the first time in the USSR, at the third stage of the construction of the Angarsk Hydroelectric Power Station, a pioneering method of filling stone and concrete blocks was used, consisting in work carried out on both sides of the river.Previously used the method of laying a dam with a bridge. In total, the construction of the dam required up to 5 million tons of concrete mix and reinforced concrete.
Filling of the Ust-Ilimsk reservoir in the river valley began in early October 1974 and lasted about three years, until 1977. The basin's capacity is 200 thousand hectares, of which 151 thousand hectares is a flood zone, in which there were about 12 million tons of commercial wood. October 15, 1974 is considered the birthday of the Ust-Ilim Sea.
The Ust-Ilim hydropower plant is considered the fourth largest in Russia and one of the largest in the world. Due to the large volumes of work, its construction took place in stages. The preparatory stage covered the period from 1963 to 1967, the main work lasted for seven years from 1968 to 1974. The first hydraulic unit produced industrial current in December 1974. Billionth kilowatt was recorded in May 1975.
By 1977, 15 first-generation hydraulic units were commissioned, which brought the station to its design capacity. The Ust-Ilimskaya HPP is identical in power to the Bratsk Station, but surpasses it in economic effect.Construction work was carried out with many innovations that allowed significant savings in resources, which made it possible to mount the sixteenth hydraulic unit.
The Ust-Ilim hydroelectric station on the Ilim River was commissioned at the end of 1980, which is the conclusion of the commission. A year later, all investments paid off. The station is the most important link in ensuring energy security throughout Eastern Siberia. In October 2000, the station recorded the production of 500 billion kilowatts of electricity. Over 25 years of operation, UI LPK has paid back investment in its construction eleven times.
The Ust-Ilim hydropower plant has a design capacity of 4,320 MW, operating capacity is 3,840 MW, the maximum current output per year is 32 billion kW / h. The station has 16 hydroelectric units, each with a capacity of 240 megawatts, the working head of the units - 90.7 meters.
After installation, the dam of the Ust-Ilimsk Hydroelectric Power Plant raised the Angara waters by 90 meters, which flooded the prepared bed of the Ust-Ilimsk Sea. The total area of the occupied surface is almost 2 thousand kilometers, the volume of the reservoir is about 60 cubic kilometers, the maximum width is 12 kilometers.
With the exception of the winter months, the level of the upstream remains constant, which ensures the station's stable operation and uninterrupted power generation. Settlements along the shores of the artificial sea are being built and growing, production and processing facilities for timber acceptance are being organized and operating. The creation of the reservoir required the flooding of about 32 thousand hectares of agricultural land. More than 14 thousand people who lived in 61 settlements were relocated from the location zone.
The place where the Ust-Ilim hydroelectric station is located is located 305 kilometers below the second stage of the Angarsk cascade (Bratsk Hydroelectric Station). The administrative, industrial building, as well as the hydroelectric power station building and the installation site are built on the right bank behind the dam. The complex includes the premises of the fleet and an economic yard, consisting of four buildings. The pressure front of the station is almost 4 thousand meters.
The structure of the dam includes:
- Gravity concrete dam of three components - stationary (length 396 meters), spillway (242 meters) and deaf parts (837 meters).The total length is about 1.5 kilometers, height 105 meters.
- The left bank part is stone-earthen (length - 1710 meters, height 28 meters).
- The right-bank part is sandy-earthen (length - 538 meters, height 47 meters).
- Hydropower building (length 440 meters).
The dam in the upper bay has a vertical structure with an overhanging console to ensure the movement of equipment along the crane runway. On the dam paved highway, closed to traffic. There are no opportunities for shipping, but this problem needs to be resolved as soon as possible, and the construction of a ship elevator is approved in the promising short-term plans.
The spillway system is equipped with 11 spillways (each is 16 meters wide) and is located on the left bank of the Ilim river. The rate of water consumption for the production of one kilowatt-hour of electricity is about 4.5 m3. The generated energy is transported through two block generators and one transformer to the busbars of the open switchgear 220 and 500 kV outdoor switchgear.
The hydroelectric power station annually spends about 19,000 kW / h for its own needs, which is no more than 0.1% of the total electricity produced by the Ust-Ilimsk Hydroelectric Power Plant.The design of the station was assigned to the Institute "Hydroproject". Potentially, hydroelectric power can be increased by installing two more units (No. 17, 18), for which a reserve has been created in the form of turbine water pipes and pipes with valves.
The Ust-Ilim hydroelectric station, as part of the Angara energy cascade, contributes to the stable development of the region and provides electricity to many enterprises of the industrial complex. The lion's share of the developed resource is consumed by wood-chemical, mining complexes, as well as the production capacity of two aluminum plants (Bratsk, Irkutsk) and an aircraft building plant in Irkutsk.
Prospective development plans for the region involve the creation of a production cluster. The commissioning of the Boguchanskaya HPP and the modernization of the cascade of the Angarsk stations, including the Ust-Ilimsk station, bring the creation of a unified production complex with an autonomous power supply closer.
In 2016, EuroSibEnergo, which includes four hydropower plants, including the Ust-Ilim, began implementing a set of measures to modernize the stations.The planned level of investment of the first stage (until 2018) is 15 billion rubles. As part of the work on the US hydroelectric station, new equipment will be supplied, the replacement of all turbines, transformers, generators, etc. is planned. The station is one of the largest in Russia, so the modernization of 16 hydroturbines will occur in stages.
At the first stage, the wheels of four cars are subject to change. The working parts of hydroturbines will be replaced by new ones, which are produced by the domestic company Power Machines. Work began in April 2016, the full range of measures is planned to be completed in 2018. Already two hydro turbines received an update, the launch of the third will occur in August 2017.
Upon completion of the modernization work package, electricity production will increase significantly (by 1.5 billion kWh) at all stations of the EuroSibEnergo Company, including the Ust-Ilimsk Hydroelectric Power Plant. Photos of the station provide an opportunity to see its industrial aesthetics and the impressive power of the human mind.
Ust-Ilim hydroelectric station (capacity - 3,840 MW) is located in Ust-Ilimsk district of the Irkutsk region.The main consumers of generated electricity are the Bratsk and Irkutsk aluminum smelters, as well as the Irkutsk aircraft building plant. The owner of the UI HPP is the open joint stock company Irkutskenergo.