How were the principles of von Neumann

Probably, I will not be mistaken if I say that the majoritypeople at the household level believe that the computer and everything connected with it are the achievements of science of the last decades of the last century. In fact, von Neumann's principles, computer work, theoretical foundations of building computer networks, were formulated in the first half of the twentieth century.

The main developer of the theory of computingsystems at that time became the famous mathematician from the USA John von Neumann. By the way, it should be said that in part this happened relatively accidentally. Neumann was included in the scientific group in 1944, which worked on the creation of the first tube electronic computer ENIAC. Once, during a routine discussion with colleagues, the scientist did not very confidently propose a fundamentally new concept of creating a device for computing. To Neumann's surprise, his partners G. Goldstein and A. Burks supported Neumann's idea, and two years later a scientific article appeared. It proposed completely unknown earlier principles of creating a computing device, and then received the name "von Neumann's principles." It's been more than half a century since the first public presentation of Neumann's ideas, but to this day, such aspects as the architecture of von Neumann's principles, are the classical theory of building computer systems. The main difference of the new concept was that it was proposed to move away from the usual decimal system of information storage and switch to binary. It was more convenient for such use and provided much greater opportunities to increase the volume of this information, both in the aspect of its storage and transmission.

In addition, von Neumann's principles enabled him to process not only numerical information, but also text, sound, and others.

Another significant discovery of Neumann wasthe solution he proposed for storing the information itself. Previously, this work was carried out almost manually, by interconnecting the necessary components of the computer with each other to ensure the exchange of information that was stored in each of these compartments. On the already mentioned ENIAC computer, this procedure took at least several days, and very often during this procedure the technique broke down - the electronic tubes went out of order. Neiman suggested that the switching program should also be encoded as a binary code and stored in the computer itself.

The scientist not only formulated ideas thatthen became widely known as the von Neumann principles, but also developed the technological structure of the computer, this concept is more often referred to as the "computer architecture". The main components of the new architecture, according to Neumann, should be:

- control device;

- logical device;

- The central processor;

- a complex of memory, including internal and external;

- input / output devices.

In the construction constructed in this way, in a computerthe special instructions are read out of memory, and then they are executed by the processor. The order of execution of commands is determined by a special command counter. The presence of such a device is now one of the hallmarks of the computer architecture proposed by Neumann.

In general, the developed and, in fact, tested andimplemented by himself, solutions for the architecture of computers, have become so universal and fundamental that even today in a professional environment machines created according to these principles are called von Neumann machines. This does not apply only to those where there is no team counter.

A possible departure from these principles is possible only in the future, when the basis for the development of the theory of computing systems will be the idea of ​​logical processing of information.



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