How did Ukraine become Ukraine?
Ukraine is a country located in the eastern part of Europe. For the first time the word "Ukraine" was mentioned in 1187 in the Kiev annals. In this article we will talk about the history of the country, about its indigenous people and about when Ukraine became an independent state.
History of the country
In the 9th century, Kiev became the capital of the Old Russian state. This was preceded by the liberation by Prince Oleg of the Dnieper lands from the Khazar Kaganate.
As a result of the fragmentation of the Old Russian state, the Kiev, Chernihiv, Galitsky, Vladimir-Volyn, Turovo-Pinsk, Pereyaslav principalities were formed.
Therefore, it is from the moment of the creation of the Kievan state that the history of Ukraine can be read.
Polovtsian raids, which the Russian princes could not cope with, contributed to the destruction of not only small cities, but also of Kiev. In 1169, as a result of the invasion of troops of Prince Andrew Bogolyubsky, Kiev was destroyed and looted. And after the arrival of Batu and completely fell into neglect.
Subsequently (XIII-XIV centuries) the lands of modern Ukraine were part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Kingdom of Poland, the Moldavian Principality and the Hungarian Kingdom.
In connection with the oppression of Ukrainian residents by Polish magnates, Cossack-peasant uprisings broke out. Headed the uprising Bogdan Khmelnitsky. The scale was now on the side of the Poles, then the Cossacks. However, during the Berestetsk battle (1651), the Cossacks suffered a crushing defeat, as a result of which they turned to Russia for help. The insurgent lands of Ukraine became subservient to Russia, which sent its troops against the Poles, which eventually turned into a Russian-Polish war. The death of Bogdan Khmelnitsky prompted a search for a new leader. This led to a struggle for power, which almost turned into a civil war.
The course of history
After the division of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, part of the territory of Ukraine became part of the Russian Empire (Right-Bank Ukraine, Volyn, Podolia). Subsequently, these territories were transformed into Kiev, Volyn, Podolsk provinces.
In 1917-1920, the territory of Ukraine consisted of 16 self-proclaimed state entities.
From February to April 1918, German troops occupied the territory of Ukraine. April 29, 1918 there was a coup d'état.As a result, the country received the name - Ukrainian Power.
1919 marked by battles during the civil war. On March 10 of the same year, the Ukrainian state becomes the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR).
December 30, 1922, the Ukrainian SSR, RSFSR, Belarusian SSR, Transcaucasian SFSR became part of the USSR.
During the Great Patriotic War, German troops invaded the territory of Ukraine. It was not until 1944 that the country was liberated. There was significant damage to the country, the economy was in decline, more than 5 million people died, cities and towns were destroyed.
When Ukraine became Ukraine
Ukraine became an independent country on August 24, 1991, when the Verkhovna Rada adopted the Act on the Proclamation of Independence of Ukraine. Later a national referendum was held (December 1, 1991), which confirmed the status of the country.
Leonid Kravchuk, who was elected in direct presidential elections, became the first President of the country. On June 19, 1992, the mention of the USSR was completely excluded from the Constitution of Ukraine (1979).
In 1992, Ukraine joined the International Monetary Fund. And in 1994, she signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
In September 1996, the national currency was introduced - hryvnia.
Every year on August 24, the Ukrainian people celebrate the Independence Day of their country.
Finds of archaeologists indicate that the indigenous people of Ukraine appeared more than 600 thousand years ago.
The population of Ukraine began to form in the Black Sea and Azov region, and then on the lands of Dnieper and Carpathian. Such peoples as glades, northerners, Volhynians, Drevlyans, streets and others took part in the formation. The constant invasion of nomads led to the mixing of cultures of peoples. But despite this, the Ukrainians managed to preserve their originality in the spiritual sphere, behavior, language.
By language, Ukrainians belong to the Slavic group of the Indo-European language family.
The first information about the number of indigenous people of Ukraine is known from the XVII century. Their number ranged from 5 to 6 million people. However, due to frequent wars, crop failures, the number of people was significantly reduced. By 1913, the number of Ukrainians numbered about 35 million.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Ukraine was affected by the migration of the population. More often, people sought to go to Siberia, the Far East, Canada and the United States. Today, this trend continues.For example, in Canada there are separate areas where only Ukrainians live. Conditions have been created for them that contribute to the preservation of identity, Ukrainian schools operate, and even newspapers are published in the Ukrainian language.
By the end of the 20th century, Ukraine had the highest population growth rates among European countries.
Today, the territory of Ukraine is inhabited by various ethnic groups. The majority of the country's population are Ukrainians (more than 77%), Russians are in second place (more than 17%). Belarusians, Poles, Bulgarians, Hungarians and others also live here.
You can learn more about obtaining Ukrainian citizenship from our article How to obtain Ukrainian citizenship.
The name of the country
The opinion of scientists regarding the origin of the name "Ukraine" differ. Researchers are actively studying historical sources, tracking the first mention of "Ukraine". In the Kiev chronicle of 1187, the death of Prince Vladimir Glebovich of Pereyaslavl during the Polovtsian campaign was reported. It says: "Behind him, Ukraine has a lot of trouble." According to some versions, "Ukraine" is mentioned here as the territories of the modern Poltava region.
The word "Ukraine" was often used in songs. It has a special melody. This is due to the successful combination of vowels and consonants. For example, the use of the word “Ukraine” in Cossack songs was explained by the presence of high national consciousness among the heroes.
There is another theory of the origin of a country name. Its essence lies in the fact that the word "Ukraine" comes from the words "land, Krajina". That is, the name "Ukraine" means by itself "lands inhabited by its people."
The most common version of the origin of the name "Ukraine" is the word "margin", that is, "border area". That was the name of the land bordering Russia. The first mention of such a term dates from 1187 and is mentioned in the Ipatiev Chronicle.
After Southern Russia, which was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, entered the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, its separate part (from Podolya to the mouth of the Dnieper) became known as Ukraine. It was caused by the fact that this territory had a border location.
In the XVI-XVIII centuries, "Ukraine" is the name of a separate region. The population of this region was called Ukrainians or Ukrainians, whose number gradually increased, which contributed to the wide spread of the name "Ukraine".
Many researchers and linguists say that the study of this issue has its roots in a very distant historical past. Actually, therefore, every theory has a place to be.
Now you know how Ukraine became Ukraine.