How to test for glucose?
Today we will tell you what a glucose test is, how to take it. In addition, the decoding of the results will be considered. This information will be useful to those who in the family were people suffering from diabetes, as well as those who are just concerned about their health. So, let's begin…
What is this study for?
Glucose in the human body plays a very important role. That she is the main source of energy. A special hormone - insulin - processes the incoming sugar into the body into glucose, which is absorbed by the body. Deviations from normal blood glucose values are a sign that there is a threat to human health.
Equally, both excess and lack of sugar causes an imbalance in the work of the organs. These changes often pass for a person unnoticed. Therefore, physicians strongly recommend that people regularly take a blood glucose test after forty years. Such a test should be done to everyone (regardless of gender and age) at least once in 2-3 years.For those who have a hereditary tendency to overweight, hypertension, diseases of the endocrine system, relatives suffering from diabetes, who themselves suffer from this ailment, testing for glucose is required every 6 months.
Direction to study
Find out without surveys the sugar level is impossible. It is determined only by analysis. However, there are external signs on which the doctor can understand that a person has a similar problem.
These features include:
- fast fatiguability;
- a clear smell of acetone from the mouth (this is one of the most obvious signs of diabetes);
- frequent headache;
- constant thirst (especially in the morning time of the day);
- frequent urination, especially during the night;
- long healing of small scratches and wounds, the appearance of boils;
- a sharp decline in vision;
- dry mouth;
- weakened immunity;
- rapid weight loss.
Based on the patient's complaints, the doctor may give direction to the glucose tolerance test (with a load). Other studies may also be required. For example, the patient will be given referrals for research such as a biochemical and complete blood test for sugar.
What can and cannot be done before this analysis?
All blood samples for such studies are taken on an empty stomach. This is not the only rule. To obtain accurate test results, you should prepare for it in advance. How to do it right? What is possible and what is not? So, if you plan to undergo such a study, then:
- two or three days before the test should not drink alcohol;
- a few hours before the test should not smoke;
- you must refrain from physical exertion;
- immediately before the test should not brush your teeth - you can not use chewing gum;
- The last time food and fluid intake should be 8-14 hours before the test, even ordinary water can distort the result, and it will be unreliable.
Also, if a person has an infectious disease, the blood sugar level will be above normal. Therefore, the test should be postponed until complete recovery. It is not recommended to do the analysis after procedures such as physiotherapy, massage and x-rays. Since the results will be distorted. With constant medication, you need to tell your doctor. Acceptance of hormonal, contraceptive, glucose steroid drugs affects the result.
Types of analyzes, standards indicators
Depending on where the blood comes from for research, what type of glucose test is performed, the test results will differ. It should be remembered that only a doctor can comment on the results of studies in detail and prescribe treatment. Nevertheless, knowledge of the basic indicators will not be superfluous.
Later in the article, transcripts of glucose tests are given in studies using various methods. This information will help you determine whether a retest is required or how urgent you need to see a doctor.
For a general blood test for glucose from a patient, material from a finger is taken. Sometimes it is taken from a vein. The study is done in the case of clinical examination, as a preventive measure for a general examination and if there are symptoms indicating abnormalities.
For men and women, the norms are the same:
- when collecting material from the finger - from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / l;
- when sampling from a vein, indicators may be slightly higher, namely: from 3.7 to 6.1.
Children's indicators, of course, should be less. So, for children aged from one to five years, the norm is indicators - from 3.3 mmol / l to 5 mmol / l.For children up to one year, the rate is even less, namely, from 2.8 to 4.4. For children over 5 years old the rate is the same as for an adult. With indicators in an adult more than 5.5, a pre-diabetic condition is diagnosed, an indicator over 6.1 indicates the presence of diabetes.
Check glucose levels. Blood chemistry
For this study, blood is taken from a fasting vein in an amount of 5 ml. This type of analysis is the most common, informative and reliable.
What should be the norms of indicators for different age categories? What is the rate of glucose test results? In children older than six years - up to 5.5 mmol / l. For adults, the rate of glucose is from 3.89 to 5.83. For people over sixty years old - no more than 6.38.
For girls during pregnancy, the figures are as follows: from 3.3 to 6.6. Deviations from normal indicators in a greater or lesser side indicate violations in the body.
Blood test with a load
This glucose analysis is performed to detect abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism in the body that cannot be detected by routine analysis.
Pre-blood on an empty stomach, as in general.After the patient drinks a saturated solution of glucose (load), and over the next two hours, blood is taken twice for examination. In the interval between samples a person does not eat, does not consume liquid and does not smoke.
In hours 2 after carrying out the analysis for glucose with a load, the indicator should be no higher than 7.8 mmol / l. If the figures are higher than normal, but do not exceed 11.1 mmol / l, then this is a symptom of disturbances. This deviation is called hyperglycemia. A value of 11.1 or higher indicates a disease.
Blood test with the load during pregnancy
Separately, about how and why the analysis of glucose tolerance in pregnant women. During pregnancy, a woman's hormones change, the level of glucose is different from normal values.
In the period from the twenty-fourth to the twenty-eighth week of gestation, the norms of the indicators are as follows:
- fasting is from four to 5.2 mmol / l;
- after eating (for example, after a girl drinks tea and eats a bun) - 6.7.
If you suspect gestational diabetes, research on sugar with a load is conducted. Before testing, a woman takes 100 grams of glucose solution.Measurements are made within three hours. What should be the test results? Normally the following:
- after one hour - no more than 10.5 mmol / l;
- after 120 minutes - no more than 9.2;
- after three hours - no more than eight mmol / l.
Deviations from the norm. What are they talking about?
Fasting blood glucose of 5.1 mmol / l indicates the development of gestational diabetes.
The norms of sugar in a pregnant woman with this ailment of the disease are:
- on an empty stomach from five to seven mmol / l;
- with the test with the load, after an hour less than ten mmol / l;
- rate 120 minutes after glucose <8.5 mmol / l.
Most often, this disease is diagnosed for pregnant women in the second trimester. If the disease is detected at an earlier date, then this indicates diabetes, which arose before conception. The level of sugar during the entire pregnancy is checked more than once for the entire period. This indicator in the blood of a pregnant woman is controlled in any case, even if her health does not cause any concerns. If risk factors are present that influence deviations from the norm, glucose analysis is extremely necessary.
Girls at risk:
- late pregnancy after 30-35 years;
- genetic predisposition to diabetes;
- having excess weight;
- previous birth of a child with an excess weight;
- unsuccessful previous pregnancies, miscarriages, stillborn children;
- having such a pathology as polyhydramnios.
By conducting a similar study, it is possible in a pregnant woman to detect gestational diabetes in the early stages. In addition, such a violation threatens the health of the unborn child.
This pathology after childbirth passes independently, without any treatment. Transferred gestational diabetes when carrying a child can cause the development of diabetes several years after pregnancy.
Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia. What does this mean?
Hyperglycemia is a condition where blood sugar is higher than normal.
This may indicate:
- diseases of the liver, kidneys;
- disruption of the endocrine system;
- the presence of acute or chronic pancreatitis.
If the indicators are lowered (hypoglycemia), then this may indicate the development of such diseases and pathologies as:
- disorders of the pancreas;
- poisoning with drugs, alcohol or arsenic;
- liver disease.
When diagnosing diabetes or a pre-diabetic condition, experts advise you to get a glucose meter, called a glucometer.
Thanks to this tester can be carried out at home study.
The device, easy and convenient in application, will allow to control regularly sugar in blood, being at home. In diabetes, such measurements should be carried out several times a day:
- in the morning after waking up;
- before meals;
- after the meal sixty minutes later
- 120 minutes after eating the food;
- before you go to bed;
- at night.
The information obtained with the help of the meter is very valuable. So you can independently analyze what and how (products, medicines, insulin injections) affects the body.
Such a rapid test is similar to a general blood test, blood glucose is an approximate indicator. However, testing helps people with diabetes monitor their blood sugar levels daily.
Analysis using the instrument takes very little time, the result is displayed on the display in a few minutes.
How to return sugar to normal?
With small changes in the norm, blood sugar can be corrected with the help of a balanced diet.
With an increased level of glucose in the blood should be abandoned products with a high glycemic index, banned:
- sweet soda, wine, beer;
- products from high-grade flour, pasta;
Helps to reduce sugar levels in the daily diet of glucose-lowering foods:
The doctor may prescribe medication, in which there is a gradual decrease in blood sugar levels without the use of insulin.
If the increase in sugar level is caused by diseases of the organs involved in carbohydrate metabolism, then such diabetes is called secondary. Therapy should be carried out in parallel with concomitant disease. A patient with insulin deficiency is prescribed insulin preparations. The reception rate is calculated by the endocrinologist individually for the patient.
In the presence of hypoglycemia, the sugar level can be raised by eating more foods rich in proteins:
- lean meat;
Properly selected by a specialist diet is the key to recovery.
An important role in maintaining normal blood sugar levels is played by regular exercise. Regular walks in the fresh air, light cardio loads have a positive effect on the condition of people with impaired metabolism, this is especially true for those who are overweight.
Regular blood glucose monitoring can prevent a serious endocrine disease such as diabetes. For those who are already sick with this ailment, timely blood tests will help avoid the onset of complications, such as rapid loss of vision. A blood glucose test will help determine how effective the prescribed treatment is. When the first symptoms indicate a violation of the norm of sugar in the blood, you should immediately consult a doctor, delay may be critical for health.
Now you know what a blood glucose test is. As you can see, this is a sufficiently useful study for each of us. After all, high blood sugar can lead to various diseases, in particular to diabetes. Now you know how this research is done and why.We hope that this information was useful to you!