How to lay brickwork? Calculation of brickwork
Brick buildings are durable and reliable. Durability is another undoubted advantage of such structures. On the streets of old cities you can still see houses of brick, built in the XVI-XIX centuries. Despite the recent appearance of new low-cost materials with good performance, brick still remains popular and popular. From it build both small private houses, and multistory city. How lay brickwork, and talk later in the article.
Varieties of material
Brick is corpulent and hollow. The last option is inferior in strength to the first, but the houses from it turn out to be warmer.
There is also a facing brick used for the construction of fences and finishing walls. It differs from the usual material saturation of color and perfectly smooth edges.
In addition, bricks are divided into clay and silicate.The latter option can not be used for the construction of foundations, as it does not tolerate high humidity.
How to lay brickwork, consider below. Now let's look at what this material is. Standard clay brick has a strictly rectangular shape. Its size is 250 x 120 x 65 mm. Two long sides of a brick are called spoon, two short - butting, two wide surfaces above and below - a bed.
What can be the thickness of the brickwork
The thickness of the masonry depends, firstly, on the climatic conditions of a particular region, and secondly, on the purpose of the building itself. Walls can be made with a thickness of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 bricks. The rows in which the material is laid with the long side out are called spoon, the short one - tychkovymi. In any brickwork there are not only whole bricks, halves, quarters and three quarters are also used.
Types of stitches
If the wall is not supposed to be plastered, the joints of the brickwork should be completely filled. In the process of building the wall, they are "embroidered" with a special tool.The shape of the seams are different: in the undercut, recessed, triangular, fillet, etc. Under the plaster and cladding, the outer and inner seams are not filled with a solution. This contributes to a better adhesion of the finishing layer to the base layer.
Brick walls are laid using special mortars. Their composition may be different. Mortar, cement-lime and lime-based mortars are used. A compulsory component of any composition is gully coarse sand. It is necessarily sifted to remove inclusions of clay, dirt and stones. The cement-to-sand ratio is usually between 1: 3 and 1: 6.
For the preparation of cement mortar knead a dry mixture of sand and cement, ensuring complete homogeneity of the composition. Next, add water in an amount such that the mixture does not spread and does not break up into lumps. Walls lined with this solution have a relatively high degree of thermal conductivity, so moisture is often condensed on them.
Adding lime mix allows you to build a warmer house, but this masonry is less durable.The best option for the construction of walls of residential buildings are cement-lime mortars. The basis of them is the same lime, and as a filler - a mixture of sand and cement. Remember that the solution must be developed within one and a half hours after mixing.
How to get started?
Brick walls are laid only on a waterproof foundation, otherwise they will later become damp. In addition, the foundation itself must last at least a month. During this period, the concrete will gain sufficient strength in order to withstand the weight of the walls. Pre-laid on the foundation two layers of roofing material, missed with bitumen mastic. You should not worry that walls with the basis will not be connected by solution. Brick is heavy material. Consequently, the walls will hold on to the foundation very firmly, even without a bundle.
Proper brickwork is performed only with "ligation" of the seams. In this case, all the walls of the house will be a single and solid construction. When laying, the bricks of the upper row are most often shifted by half or a quarter of the lower brick.
A rather complicated operation is the "ligation" of the corners - the vertical seams of the rows should not coincide. In the corners, this is especially important, so laying start with them.
When building walls, be sure to follow the rules stipulated by the SNiP. The brickwork will turn out reliable in the event that:
- The surface and angles will not deviate vertically more than 10 mm for houses on one floor and more than 15 mm for buildings up to two floors.
- The jog rows will be laid under all additional structures (floor slabs, balconies, supporting parts for beams, etc.).
- Jumpers will be installed above the openings for windows and doors.
- When sanding, the depth of the seam without mortar will not exceed 15 mm.
- The thickness of the seams, both vertical and horizontal, will not exceed 16 mm. When using reinforcement, the thickness of the seam should be 4 mm greater than the sum of the diameters of the rods.
How to calculate the amount of material
The calculation of the brickwork is quite simple. Initially, calculate the volume of the walls of the house. To do this, their length is multiplied by the height and thickness. Further, in the same way, the volume of window and door openings is calculated. Then subtract the second digit from the first digit. Depending on the thickness of the seams, an average of 1 m3masonry accounts for about 380-400 bricks.The result is multiplied by 400. For convenience, perform the calculation of each wall separately. Partitions laid out in half-brick, are calculated not in cubic, but in square meters.
Row laying rules
So, the calculation of the brickwork is made, the foundation is waterproofed. What next? The first row, as already mentioned, begin to spread from the corner. It is very important to achieve its full horizontal position. When laying, be sure to use a plumb line and a cord stretched to a level. The berth is fixed on the pins, poured under the corner bricks (above the first and under the second).
According to SNiP, brickwork should be performed as follows:
- The first row is laid out by poking, that is, the bricks should be placed across the foundation.
- The next five rows are laid with spoons.
- Every sixth row should be tychkovy.
Three ways of laying
So now let's see how the brickwork is laid. It is usually performed from left to right. There are only three basic methods of masonry: pressing, sprinkling and sprinkling with undercutting. In the first and last case, the concrete is spread on the base at a distance of about 1.5 cm from the vertical surface of the walls.In this case, a full-fledged seam is formed, and the solution is practically not squeezed out.
When using the sprinkler method, spreading is done at a distance of 2.5 cm. This method is used for laying in the waste. The solution is laid out on the base of the width of the three spoon bricks.
When performing masonry by pressing the first brick, it is placed on the mortar and slightly precipitated from above. Next, the solution is scooped to the end with a trowel.
Next, a second brick is installed and set down. With the methods of injecting and injecting with trimming the solution, the first brick is put in the same way as in the method of pressing. The second brick is taken in the right hand, and, slightly tilting it with the end face, rake in the mortar from the base, moving part of it to the end face of the first brick. Next, it is lowered onto the concrete completely and upset.
When laying by pressing and injecting with undercutting, a part of the concrete mass will in any case protrude onto the front surface of the walls. It should be immediately removed with a trowel. After laying the row, the jointing is performed, passing them with a special jointing tool. When moving the mortar with a brick, rather than a trowel, the seams remain partially unfilled in height. The solution in them is added when laying for the next row.Be sure to ensure that the vertical joint is filled with concrete completely, otherwise the house will be cold, as the remaining holes will get water and wind.
The most time-consuming method is considered to be a clamp. Laying the sprinkler with the trimming solution is easier. The fastest wall erected by sprinkling.
Masonry exterior walls
Brick - a material with a fairly high degree of thermal conductivity. Walls erected even from hollow material must be thick enough. In low-rise construction often use the so-called well masonry. At the same time, essentially two walls with a thickness of a brick or half-brick — external and internal — are erected. For stability, they are connected by brick diaphragms. The resulting "wells" are filled with some insulation (expanded clay, slag, etc.). As a result, the material is spent on an order of magnitude less, and the walls are quite strong and warm. In addition, the execution time is significantly reduced.
Masonry interior walls and partitions
For the construction of internal walls is usually used brick in brick. That is, the material in the first row simply fits on the ground with a poke.In the second row, for each butt brick, two bricks are laid with a spoon. Partitions are usually laid out in half-brick thickness. In this case, the bricks are set in a row with a spoon on top of each other. For partitions, you can use material intended for zabutovki. This is a very cheap brick. However, its faces are uneven, and therefore it is rather difficult to lay walls out of it. If there is a financial opportunity, it is better to purchase an ordinary solid or hollow red clay brick for walls.
Windows and doors
Now let's see how to lay brickwork when installing window and door openings. Since in any case they weaken the structure, the material should be positioned according to certain rules:
- First of all, it is necessary to make the so-called quarter, that is, the inner part of the masonry should be moved into the opening by a quarter of the brick.
- A concrete or metal beam must be installed above the opening.
- The opening should be laid out with the observance of the verticality and horizontal position of all surfaces.
In order for the walls to be as strong as possible,at the end of the masonry, arm-belt is arranged on top For this purpose, a formwork with a height of 20-30 cm is assembled, in which the reinforcement is mounted (as for the foundation). Then everything is poured concrete.
We found out how the brickwork is done properly. The photos in our article clearly demonstrate this process, but remember that building walls out of bricks is a technologically complex process. We advise you to put a brick under the direction of a person who has experience in carrying out this kind of work.