How to determine the time of the verb?

A verb is a part of speech denoting an action. Verbs vary in numbers, faces, and tenses. In addition, they have conjugations, views and moods. In Russian, there are three main forms of the verb tense: past, present and future. Let's talk more about how to understand the tenses of the verb.

Determine the type of verb

Verbs are perfect and imperfect. Perfect verbs indicate that the action has already been done (or will be done) and the result is achieved. To such verbs comes the question “what to do?”. In perfect verbs, there are only two tenses: the past and the future.

Imperfect verbs can be in the past, present and future tense. They answer the question “what to do?”.

Past tense verbs

The main signs that the verb refers to the past tense are:

  • suffix -l; (walking, flying)
  • endings –a (feminine gender), –o (neuter gender) and –and (plural). The masculine verbs have no ending in the past tense. Example: played, played, played, played.

To understand that the verb is in the past tense, to it, depending on the gender and number, you need to substitute the following questions:

  • for a perfect form: “what did you do?” (m. r.), “what did you do?” (female), “what did you do?” (cf. r.), “what did you do?” (plural hours );
  • for an imperfect form: “what did you do?” (m. r.), “what did you do?” (female), “what did you do?” (cf. r.), “what did you do?” (plural ch. ).

Present tense verbs

In the present tense, the verb reflects the action that occurs at the moment of speech. General defining question of such verbs:

  • in the singular - “what does?”;
  • in the plural - “what do they do?”.

As noted above, in the present tense there can only be verbs of the imperfect type.

The end of the verb in the present tense will depend on whether it refers to the 1st or 2nd conjugation.

Endings of verbs of the first conjugation

Single number: -y, -y (first person); - you are (second person); -et (third party). Example: Carry, Carry, Carry; read, read, read

Plural: - it, - it (the first person); - you, - you (the second person); -out, -out (third party) Example: carry, carry, carry; read, read, read.

Second Verb Verb Endings

Single number: -y, -y (first person); - you (the second person); -it (third party). Example: lie, lie, lie; build, build, build.

Plural: - endings - we (first person); -ite (second person); -at, -yat (third party). Example: lie, lie, lie; build, build, build.

Future verbs

Future tense verbs reflect the action to be done or the action to be done in the future. Defining questions for singular verbs:

  • perfect look: “what will do?”;
  • imperfect look: “what will do?”.

Questions for the plural of verbs:

  • perfect look: “what will they do?”;
  • imperfect look: “what will they do?”.

In the future tense of imperfect verbs, one interesting feature appears - they turn into complex verbs. The verb “to be” is added to the infinitive in a suitable form. For example: I will walk, we will run, will play.

The endings of the verbs of the perfect first conjugation

Single number: -y, -y (first person); - you, - you (second person); No, Third (third party). Example: I'll take it, take it, take it; read, read, read.

Plural: - it, - it (the first person); - you, - you (the second person); -out, -out (third party). Example: assign, assign, assign; read, read, read.

The endings of the verbs of the perfect second conjugation

Single number: -y, -y (first person); - you (the second person); -it (third party). Example: lie down, lie down, lie down; build, build, build.

Plural: - endings - we (first person); -ite (second person); -at, -yat (third party). Example: lie down, lie down, lie down; build, build, build.

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