How to choose a heating radiator for an apartment? Types of radiators and their characteristics
The question of how to choose a heating radiator for an apartment sometimes arises during redevelopment, when the battery needs to be moved to another wall. He worries about the owners and overhaul. Sometimes the cause of radiator replacement is an emergency. In this case, the issue will need to be addressed urgently, so as not to flood the neighbors.
How to choose a heating radiator for an apartment? After all, the possibility of savings, security, a sense of comfort in housing, as well as the beauty of the interior will depend on the right decision. Let's try to understand this issue.
When is the radiator broken?
Often there are situations when the batteries in the apartment during the heating season are cold or slightly warm. This causes condensation and dampness to appear in the house.Sometimes this is due to an airlock, insufficient water supply temperature or clogged pipes.
In an apartment with central heating it is worth checking whether all the batteries do not heat. If the heat is distributed evenly, is no more than 30-40 degrees and the sound of water moving through the pipes is heard, then it can be concluded that at the moment the boiler or the boiler room is not doing its job. Pumps served in the heating system is not at all hot, but only a little warm water. To fix this problem you will need to call the appropriate service.
The silence in the pipes may indicate that an airlock has formed in them. Such a malfunction sometimes does not allow the boiler room to "give boiling water." The situation will help correct the descent of air from the system. Badly heats the heating radiator in the apartment and when clogged, as well as damage to the valves and pipes. This problem is considered more serious. Eliminate it can only professionals who use the necessary equipment. For example, when clogged, they do the heating of the radiator in the apartment.
Need to replace batteries
If the heating system of the apartment is represented by old cast-iron radiators, then they should certainly be changed. After all, these products were made many years ago.Then all the standards were slightly different. In addition, the life of the cast-iron device is 25 years, and, most likely, it has already expired.
In order to decide on whether to change the radiators in the apartment, you just need to touch the lower part of the heating season during the heating season. She is likely to be barely warm. The boiler room is not to blame for this. Just change the cast-iron products, scored, with new ones.
Sometimes radiators change when moving to a new apartment. In modern new buildings, small tubular or lamellar heating elements are installed. These products, called convectors, have significantly worse heat transfer parameters than batteries. How to choose a heating radiator for an apartment? To do this, it will be necessary to consider the current types of these devices and the main criteria for their selection.
What should be done first of all to those owners who ask the question "How to change the heating radiator in the apartment?". First of all, you need to calculate the number of batteries required for installation in the room.Why do you need it? The fact is that the comfort of the dwelling will depend on the heating efficiency. If you install too weak batteries, the microclimate parameters will significantly differ from the optimal ones. It is not necessary in this matter and try too hard. It should be noted that the price of high quality radiators is very high. And the owners are unlikely to be interesting to overpay for the purchase of unnecessary designs.
Knowing how to calculate heating radiators for an apartment, you can not only minimize costs, but also clarify the necessary budget at the planning stage of repairs. The first step in solving this problem is calculating the volume of the room. For this, the area of the room is multiplied by the height. The result is the desired value in cubic meters. This volume should be multiplied by 41 watts. This value is a normative factor used in the calculation of batteries in the European part of Russia. The resulting value is divided by the heat transfer of the selected radiator model. The result should be rounded up. The resulting figure will accurately indicate how many battery edges you will need to install to ensure a comfortable microclimate in the room.
Threats lurking in centralized heating
On the one hand, residents of multi-storey buildings should be very pleased. After all, when the cold weather comes, hot water, without any installation of boilers and other heating equipment, will certainly run through the pipes, warming the dwelling. However, in a centralized system, not everything is so smooth. After all, water, having come a long way, brings a significant amount of impurities and chemically active elements that can cause corrosion of radiators. In addition, the inside of the structure is scratched by small particles of sludge. They also come along with the coolant. After a few years, such particles can wipe the surface to holes.
The one who decides the question “How to choose a heating radiator for an apartment?” Should bear in mind that the construction material should be as reliable as possible. After all, the temperature of the water in the system is not always stable. Sometimes it heats up only barely, and sometimes it’s just impossible to touch the battery. The most important danger to radiators is water hammer. It occurs with a sudden surge in fluid pressure. This is possible, for example, in cases where a locksmith very sharply closes the pump valve.
Radiator selection criteria
For efficient operation of the heating system in an apartment, the batteries must meet the following requirements:
- efficiency of functioning, that is, the ability to heat the room;
- safety and durability;
- aesthetic look, harmoniously complementing the decoration of rooms;
- the excess pressure, stated by the manufacturer, that which takes place in the heating system (the regulatory parameter in the five-story old layout is within 5-8 atmospheres, and in modern high-rise buildings - 12-15 atmospheres);
- the presence within the structure of a special coating that allows it to withstand the “chemical attacks” of water entering the heating system.
In addition, those who have not yet finally figured out the question "How to choose a heating radiator for an apartment?", It is necessary to take into account the power of the device. This is the most important value, which indicates the efficiency of heat transfer by the battery, that is, how well it will heat the house. The presence of window openings, as well as the material from which the frames (plastic or wood) are made, will also have an impact on this indicator.When choosing a radiator, it is important to take into account the type of house (brick or panel), as well as the number of external walls. So, the previously calculated number of battery edges will need to be corrected:
- by 20% if the room has two windows and two external walls;
- 10% if windows are located to the north.
In addition, the heating batteries for an apartment should correspond in their dimensions to the place that is intended for their installation. The optimal distance from the window to the radiator is 10 cm or more, and from the floor - 6 cm. The width of the battery should be 50% greater than the width of the window under which it will be installed.
Types of radiators
The modern market of sanitary materials offers consumers four types of batteries. These are aluminum and cast iron, as well as bimetallic and steel.
Which of them are the best heating radiators for an apartment? User feedback suggests that each of these types of structures has its own characteristics. It is those characteristics that are caused by the material and shape of the products, and affect their application. Consider the main types of heating radiators for an apartment in more detail.
For the first time a heating radiator from this material was proposed to users by the engineer-inventor Franz San-Galli. It happened in 1857. Subsequently, cast-iron radiators for apartment heating for many years became an integral attribute of the urban dwelling.
Such a battery is a composite design. It consists of several sections of the same size (their number can range from two to two dozen).
Cast iron batteries during installation were always hung on brackets, firmly fixed in a niche under the window. But today, modern manufacturers offer floor models of similar products. This design is set anywhere, which is especially welcomed by the owners of private houses.
In order to finally determine whether to buy cast iron batteries for an apartment, you should be familiar with their technical characteristics. And the most important parameter in this case is the heat transfer of this material. Cast iron is characterized by slow heating, which is called thermal inertia. And in the case when it is necessary to warm the cooled room, it will take a lot of time.According to this parameter, cast iron radiators are noticeably inferior to modern aluminum, steel and bimetallic structures. After all, the latter run high just instantly. At the same time, the air in the room is heated up just as quickly. It should be noted that the cooling of all modern radiators is just as fast. Another thing is a cast iron battery. Its thick walls allow you to retain heat for a long time, maintaining a comfortable microclimate in the room.
As for heat transfer, only one section of such a radiator has its value in the range from 110 to 160 watts. In addition, cast iron batteries are considered to be durable and durable. Their working pressure is at the level of 9 atmospheres and even sometimes exceeds this value. Such values of the indicators become possible due to the considerable thickness of the cast-iron walls.
Another advantage of such batteries is the lack of corrosion in it. Cast iron, unlike steel, aluminum and its alloys, is not covered with rust.
Among the advantages of traditional batteries for apartments, you can highlight them:
- low cost (for such heating radiators the price is much lower than for trendy bimetallic or aluminum products, which, of course, pleases the apartment owners);
- lack of strict requirements for the coolant;
- counteraction to hydraulic impacts.
However, cast iron radiators have some drawbacks. Among them:
- an unaesthetic appearance, which is corrected by modern manufacturers who, in addition to traditional models, offer real masterpieces on decorative legs, with cast monograms and in various color solutions;
- impressive dimensions and weight.
These radiators look like a ribbed plate. Their internal space is a hermetically sealed contour, which is filled with coolant.
Steel batteries are distinguished by a significant surface area as well as its ribbed shape. All these factors combine to provide constructions with excellent heat transfer, as well as convection of warm air.
The material from which such radiators are made has almost the same thermal conductivity value as cast iron. At the same time, the thickness of steel walls is much smaller, which is why they warm up much faster. The working pressure of these radiators is in the range from 6 to 10 atm.
So, making the choice of radiators for an apartment, you should take into account the advantages of steel structures. They are that:
- the appearance and shape of the products make it possible to perfectly fit them into the design of any modern interior;
- with proper and good water preparation, such radiators are able to serve from 15 to 25 years;
- it is possible to use structures in systems of various types (single and double pipe);
- radiators from steel have a low price;
- designs are convenient in installation.
At the beginning of the history of their promotion in the consumer plumbing market, steel radiators were very popular. They won their appearance on the background of monotonous cast iron sections. However, over time, consumers have become convinced that the modern and beautiful design of these products is not at all a criterion for their reliable operation.
One of the drawbacks that were noted during the operation of the structure was the inability to withstand the water hammer of the heating system. The second significant drawback that predetermined the fall of interest in steel radiators was their increased tendency to corrosion. Even pure water affected this process. The rate of corrosion sometimes exceeds 0.1 mm thickness of steel during the year.That is why the operation of such structures is impossible for more than 15 years. Another disadvantage is the loss of tightness at a high flow rate of the coolant. This is due to the relaxation of welded joints made by spot welding, which eventually become unusable.
And one more nuance. Before installing steel batteries, an accurate calculation of the required number of plates is required. The fact is that the closed circuit of the structure will not allow its thermal characteristics to be changed in the future.
Heat exchangers of this material increase the air temperature in the room due to convection and thermal radiation when moving the heated air from the lower sections of the battery to the upper.
Aluminum radiators have a working pressure in the range of 5-16 atm. Their service life is 10-15 years. Indicator of thermal power of one section, depending on the model, ranges from 81 to 212 watts.
Aluminum radiators can be made in one of two ways:
- Casting. In this case, separate sections are produced at elevated pressure. The material for their manufacture is aluminum with the addition of silicon (within 12%). Ready sections are fastened in one heating design.
- Extrusion method.This method involves the manufacture of vertical parts of the structure on the extruder. Its collector is made of alloy, aluminum and silicon. Finished parts are connected.
Among the advantages of aluminum radiators are:
- ease of installation and low weight;
- good thermal conductivity;
- high level of heat transfer;
- performance in modern design;
- fast heating of the unit;
- the ability to install instruments for adjusting the heating radiator in the apartment (thermostats);
- low cost.
The disadvantages of aluminum radiators include:
- sensitivity to physical effects;
- the need to comply with a certain pH level of water;
- high probability of formation of leaks in the joints;
- the need to install cleaning filters;
- weak level of convention.
This type of radiator includes devices that have an aluminum case into which steel pipes are embedded. They can withstand pressure from 18 to 40 atm and have a warranty period of operation within 20 years.
Among the positive qualities of bimetallic radiators there are:
- reliability, durability and resistance to pressure surges and mechanical stress;
- high level of heat transfer;
- easy installation and light weight;
- aesthetic look.
Among the disadvantages of such structures are:
- high cost;
- probability of corrosion;
- transmission instability, as well as the occurrence of crackling sounds and characteristic noises at the beginning of operation due to various indicators of the thermal characteristics of steel and aluminum.