How to abbreviate words?
Literacy of writing various texts is often a prerequisite for high-quality work. After all, communication with partners and customers often takes place in writing. Knowing how to shorten words will help you demonstrate a good level of language skills.
Types of abbreviations
In the Russian language, the abbreviation rules are spelled out in GOST 7.12-93. It is this document that should be relied upon when questions arise about how to abbreviate words.
Truncating a part of a word
Any part of speech can be written in abbreviated form, and the word is always abbreviated equally, regardless of time, case, gender or number. There are several ways to shorten a word. The most common is truncating a part of a word. According to the rules, when using this method, it is necessary to put a full stop after the end of the reduction. For example, the abbreviated form of the word "illustration" - Il., "Minimal" - min. In the established cuts point can not be put. This mainly concerns the units of measurement: ampere - A, gram - g.
Tension of parts of the word
The second method is the contraction of parts of a word. That is, in abbreviated form indicate the beginning and end of the word, replacing the missing letters with a hyphen. For example, the institute - in-t, the madam - Mrs. By the way, in this case the ending should be the same as in full form: the message to Ms. Nezhinskaya. In compound words referring to units of measurement, no hyphen is put: milliamperes - mA, kilogram - kg.
Sometimes a combination of two reduction mechanisms is used, which is typical of difficult words: railway - railway, agricultural - agricultural machinery.
One of the most used abbreviations of phrases are abbreviations. Most often they consist of the first capital letters of the word: VSU - Voronezh State University. But if the abbreviation is already used, then one of the words is truncated: VolSU - Volgograd State University. In addition, part of a word can be used instead of a letter for ease of pronunciation and harmonious sound.
- Regardless of the method in abbreviated form, at least two letters must be left. The only exceptions are generally accepted abbreviations (year - year, page - s.etc.), as well as some words written out in paragraph 5 of the said GOST. In the same section, you can familiarize yourself with non-standard words abbreviations. For example, the abbreviated form of the word "movie" - KF, "abstract journal" - RJ.
- Abbreviations also cannot end in a vowel or “d”. In this case, you must leave a consonant, standing after it: extreme - extreme. The exception is the "island" - about. If the word in the place of the abbreviation ends in a soft sign, then the part of the word before it is taken for abbreviation: Polish - gender. There are nuances in the reduction of words with a double consonant. In such cases it is necessary to leave only one of them: classic - class.
- The participles, adjectives and verbs formed from the noun, are reduced in the same way as this noun: refined, refined, refined, refined - dorab.
- Adjectives ending in -Avsky, -any, -Eyinsky, -atsky, -Ionic, -ky, -ny, -owsky, and some others are reduced by cutting off the specified parts of the words.
- When reducing adjectives, it is necessary to choose the shortest, but at the same time not allowing for different interpretations of the form.For example, for the word "fundamental" - the right option would be the fund., And not the foundation. or fun.
- In phrases it is necessary to abbreviate both words. For example, the head of the department - Head. kaf Sometimes the abbreviated form of a certain word is allowed only in one variant. For example, the title page - tit. l If in the abbreviated phrases there are prepositions, then you can not put a full stop after them. And so on: right - and so on, wrong - and. etc. There are a number of well-established expressions, when the phrase is written as initial letters through a slash: second-hand - second-hand, in order - p / p.
- Complicated words include those formed from two or more reduced parts of words: Ministry of Energy - Ministry of Energy, wall newspaper - stenographic newspaper.
The rules for abbreviation of words, despite their abundance, are very logical, and therefore easy to memorize.