How does a medical abortion occur? Consequences and indications
The news of the upcoming pregnancy is not all women delights. There are many reasons for this, ranging from an unplanned conception to an unsatisfactory state of health. To get rid of unwanted pregnancy, today there are several ways. It is considered the safest drug. This method eliminates serious surgical intervention. It is better tolerated both physically and psychologically. In this article we will discuss how a medical abortion occurs. Information about possible contraindications and consequences of pharmacological abortion will also be presented to your attention.
Description of the procedure
Medical or pharmacological abortion is a procedure aimed at interrupting an unwanted pregnancy without serious surgical intervention. It is carried out with the help of certain drugs.Their action is based on blocking the production of progesterone. This hormone is produced in the body of a woman and is responsible for maintaining pregnancy. After taking the pill, a spontaneous miscarriage occurs.
Medical termination of pregnancy, drugs for this procedure and its implementation - all these issues have been discussed by doctors for a long time. However, it was only from the end of the last century that a real possibility of pharmacological abortion appeared to be effective and relatively safe for a woman’s health. Specialists from France have developed the drug "Mifepristone", belonging to the group of antiprogestins. In the early 1980s, large-scale studies of this drug as an abortion medicine were launched in Geneva. A few years later, in France, they began to put it into practice.
As shown by numerous medical studies, women prefer pharmacological abortions for a number of reasons. First, there is the fear of surgery. Secondly, this method allows you to hide an unwanted pregnancy from loved ones and relatives.
Advantages of pharmacological abortion over surgical
Medical termination of pregnancy, the timing of which is described below, has a number of significant advantages. We have already mentioned some of them. What other positive points worth paying attention to?
- No need to take painkillers.
- Quick rehabilitation period.
- The probability of damage to the uterine cavity, the development of adhesive processes or other gynecological complications is excluded.
- Medical abortion is reminiscent of heavy periods, so psychologically a woman perceives it as a natural process.
- No need to go to the hospital.
- The risk of infection by viral diseases (AIDS or hepatitis) is excluded.
To find out all the nuances of how medical termination of pregnancy occurs, it is better to consult a gynecologist. The specialist will answer your questions and give useful recommendations.
Pharmacological abortion can be carried out before the 6th week of pregnancy, counting from the first day of extreme menstruation. The effectiveness of the procedure increases markedly when used in the early stages.Otherwise, you may need to use other methods of interruption (for example, vacuum aspiration or surgical intervention).
What drugs are used?
Medicines for the procedure are selected by the doctor. However, he must take into account the individual characteristics of the female body. The drugs used today can be divided into two conditional groups. The first are Postinor and Eskapel. They are used for emergency contraception.
"Postinor" is available in pill form. Its active ingredient is levonorgestrel. Once in the body, it causes certain changes in the endometrium, preventing the implantation of the egg. On the other hand, levonorgestrel suppresses ovulation. According to the instructions, "Postinor" must be drunk immediately after the unprotected sexual contact has taken place. First you need to take one pill, and after 12 hours - the second. For the first few hours, its effectiveness is 95%. After a day, this figure drops to 58%.
Eskapel has a similar effect, but contains a large dose of levonorgestrel.Therefore, the medication is limited to one pill. These differences between the two means are limited. They have the same effect on the ovulation and fertilization processes.
The second group of drugs include "Mifepriston" and "Pencrofton". Their use is justified in the case of pregnancy, the period of which does not exceed 6 weeks. They are used after implantation of a fertilized egg. Therefore, before the appointment of these medicines, it is necessary to conduct a series of clinical studies.
The role of the active substance is mifepristone. Its penetration into the body blocks the activity of progesterone, significantly increasing the contractility of the myometrium. As a result of these processes, the cervix begins to expand, expelling the fertilized egg. Below we will look at how a medical termination of pregnancy occurs using the last group of medicines. "Mifepriston" and "Pencrofton" are used for this procedure most often.
There are a number of circumstances in which there should be no medical termination of pregnancy.Reviews of gynecologists warn that it is better to refuse the procedure in the following cases:
- inflammatory gynecological diseases;
- uterine fibroids;
- long-term treatment with glucocorticoids;
- bleeding disorders;
- lactation period;
- ectopic first pregnancy.
Drug-induced abortion is not recommended for women over 35 years old. Used drugs can provoke a sharp change in hormonal levels.
Preparation for the procedure
Pharmacological abortion is a serious procedure that should be carried out under the supervision of a physician. After the appearance of signs of unwanted pregnancy should contact your gynecologist for a preliminary examination. The doctor performs an ultrasound to determine the approximate time of conception. After that, the woman must give a written consent to a medical abortion.
Preparations for the procedure picks up the gynecologist. Before an abortion, a pregnant woman should also undergo several tests, including a smear for flora. If cardiovascular disease is suspected, a cardiogram may be required. After that, the doctor prescribes the date of the abortion.Before that, for 24 hours it is better to refuse heavy food, alcohol and smoking.
Stages of pharmacological abortion
After receiving the test results, you can proceed directly to the procedure itself. How does a medical abortion occur?
In the absence of obvious contraindications, the doctor gives the woman a drink of the drug. As a rule, these are 3 pills of 200 mg each. The next visit to the gynecologist is recommended after 36 hours. At this stage, the fetus is expelled from the uterus. To this end, prostaglandins are given to the woman, they must be instructed about the possible consequences. Sometimes she is asked to stay in the clinic for a day in order to track changes in her condition. A woman can be allowed to go home on condition that she adheres to the recommendations of a specialist, and if any unpleasant sensations arise, she will be contacted immediately.
The first control ultrasound is performed 3 days after taking the drugs. If fetal remains are visualized in the uterus, the doctor decides how to proceed. The second control ultrasound is scheduled for another 2 weeks. If necessary, the gynecologist gives direction to the analysis of the level of hCG.
Recovery after the procedure lasts about a month.At this time, you need to pay special attention to health and well-being. Increased temperature, pain in the lower abdomen, bleeding after a medical abortion - all these symptoms should be the reason for a visit to the doctor.
After pharmacological abortion, the woman's body undergoes serious changes. The hormonal background is restored, the reproductive sphere is rebuilt, immunity falls, the risk of inflammation increases. Therefore, it is necessary to take care of yourself, give the body time to normalize the work of the main systems.
Within 14 days after the abortion, you should refuse to visit the bath, have sex, play sports and use tampons. If you follow these tips, you can hope for a successful recovery of the body.
Bleeding after an abortion - norm or pathology?
The negative effects of medical abortion are extremely rare, but they are still possible. One of them is bleeding.
The appearance of blood clots after taking the first pill is considered normal. Over the course of 5 days, excretions are usually abundant.After this period, they become more scarce, and then completely cease. In some women, spotting continues until the onset of the first menstruation.
Their character depends exclusively on the individual characteristics of the organism. At first they can be scarlet, then dark and brownish in the end. It is necessary to control bleeding after medical abortion, to monitor their volume. Pathology is the use of more than two pads per hour.
If there is severe bleeding or if it is abruptly stopped, you should immediately contact a gynecologist. If this possibility is not available, it is necessary to call the medical team.
Complications of drug abortion
Pharmacological abortion is considered a relatively safe procedure, but it is not without flaws. After taking the medication may cause adverse reactions, including:
- Pain discomfort. In this case, it all depends on the characteristics of the organism, the threshold of its sensitivity. Before the procedure, the doctor must tell about possible pain.To eliminate them, antispasmodics and analgesics are usually prescribed. Taking medication on your own is not recommended, you need to consult a doctor.
- Nausea and vomiting. Such symptoms may be accompanied by pregnancy itself. Sometimes nausea and vomiting caused by prostaglandins prescribed by a gynecologist. Similar side effects are rarely observed, but they pass on their own.
- Temperature increase. The consequences of a drug-induced abortion of this nature are caused by taking medication. As a rule, the temperature rises to 38 degrees and lasts no more than 4 hours. If the unpleasant symptom does not disappear, most likely, it is a consequence of the inflammatory process. A change in well-being should be told to a doctor who has already prescribed an appropriate therapy.
- Diarrhea. This is a short-term side effect that does not need specific treatment.
- Hematometer This disorder is characterized by the accumulation of blood clots in the uterus. Its development is preceded by a spasm of the cervix of the genital organ. You can eliminate the violation with the help of drugs.
These pathologies rarely accompany a medical abortion. Feedback from women who have undergone this procedure confirms this statement. Pharmacological abortion practically does not leave behind noticeable consequences if done from a qualified specialist and in the absence of contraindications.
Where do medical abortion? Such a question worries many women. This service today provides almost all medical institutions. It is recommended to resort to her help in the hospital where your primary gynecologist works.
The total cost of the procedure may vary depending on the drugs used, the prestige of the clinic and the specialist’s qualifications directly. A certain role in this matter belongs to the presence of a woman in the hospital after the gynecologist has a medical termination of pregnancy. The price of the service may be from 7 to 11 thousand rubles.
Reviews of women and doctors
The opinions of the fair sex who have experienced this procedure are quite diverse.Some talk about severe pain, others describe the whole range of negative emotions that accompanied the abortion. Among the positives, many note the fast desired result, no need to be in the clinic, and many side effects. Women also speak about some of the negative aspects that may accompany a medical termination of pregnancy. Dates for the procedure are quite small. After the 6th week, abortion is not recommended because there is a possibility of an unfavorable outcome. Sometimes the fertilized egg does not come out completely, which means that it becomes necessary to use more serious intervention.
Opinions of representatives of the medical field also differ. Some doctors oppose any kind of impact on the baby in the womb. Others worry about the psycho-emotional state of a woman after this procedure. The third is concerned about the high cost of medicines. A little higher, we have already mentioned how much a medical abortion costs. The price of the service varies from 7 to 11 thousand rubles. Because of this, many inexperienced girls do not go to the doctor, but prefer to have a pharmacological abortion at home. An independent approach to solving a problem often ends in failure.