How do you know the rivers and lakes of the Tula region?

How do you know the rivers and lakes of the Tula region?

  1. Tula region has a well-developed river network, which belongs to the basins of the Oka River (80%) and Don (20%). In total, 1682 rivers and streams run through the territory, the total length of which is 11 thousand km. The rivers feed mainly with snow, with strong spills in spring and low level in summer.

    River

    In the region there are 1 682 rivers and streams, both constantly current and dry, with a total length of 10 963 km. Most rivers have a length of less than 5 kilometers. They are about 77% of the total number of watercourses. This is the so-called small river area. To small rivers are almost all the rivers of the region, with the exception of the Oka, Upa, Don and the Beautiful Sword. All rivers of the region are of the flat type. They tend to have a calm current and a small fall. This is due to the fact that the difference in height between the sources and mouths of rivers is insignificant; 79,8% of the river network belongs to the Volga basin and 29,2% to the Don basin.

    The most abundant river in the region is Oka, running along its western and northern borders. The width of the river bed ranges from 50 to 400 m, depth from 1 to 4,3 m (prevailing 2 m), flow velocity 0,2-0,4 m / sec. The length of the river within the area of ​​220 km.

    The main waterway of the Tula region is r. Upa. Its length is 345 km. Beginning with the middle course, the Upa acquires a well-developed valley with a wide (05, -1.5 km) floodplain and up to four floodplain terraces. The bed of the river is moderately winding in width 20-75 m, depth 1,2-3,5 m; the current speed of the river is 0,1-0,5 km / sec.

    The largest tributary of the Upa are p. R. Plav and Shat. Many more smaller rivers (Uperta, Solov, Sezha, Bezhka, Tulitsa, Upka, Volot, Dubna, Nepreika, Voronka, etc.) also flow into Upa and streams.

    One of the attractions of the Tula region is the Don, which originates near Novomoskovsk. The length of the Don in the boundaries of the region is 85 km. The width of the river valley is usually 0,5-1,5 km, the channel is wide in the middle and lower reaches of 12-30 m with deep-water (up to 4 m) reach.

    The largest tributaries of the Don in the Tula region are the Nepryadva River, the Mokraya Tabola. Length Nepryadvy - 48 km, the width of the floodplain-100-700 m; flow velocity - 0,1-0,8 m / sec.

    The Beautiful Sword River is the largest tributary of the upper reaches of the Don. The length of the river within the boundaries of the region is about 190 km. The width of the channel varies within 40-100 m; depth - 2,5-3 m, on the rolls decreases to 0,5-1 m. Average flow velocity 0,2 m / sec.

    Lakes

    The lake network in the region is almost absent. Almost all the lakes of the region are of a similar origin either to lakes of river type or to lakes of karst type.

    River type lakes are found mainly in the valleys of the Oka and Upa rivers. They are the remains of the former river beds and have an elongated shape. The depths of such lakes usually do not exceed 1-3 m. These lakes are fed by ground and rainwater.

    Lakes of karst type are found in the central part of the Tula region, most often they are noted in Shchekinsky, Leninsky, Venevsky, Kimovsky, Uzlovsky and Suvorov administrative districts. Karst lakes occupy funnel-shaped hollows, up to 15 m and more in depth and up to 80 m in diameter. The great depth of these lakes has caused some of them to be called "Bottomless" and "Bottomless".

    The largest karst lakes in the region are Ivan-Ozero, which has now become an integral part of the Shatsky reservoir near Novomoskovsk, Shilovskoye Lake in Venevsky district and Lake Zhupen in Belevsky district.

    There are no large lakes on the territory of the region. Small lakes are found mainly in the valleys of the Oka and Upa rivers. Most of these lakes are old people - the remains of the old channels left by the river, which paved its way elsewhere. Therefore, these lakes have an elongated shape for the most part. The depth of such lakes is insignificant, usually 1 - 3 meters.



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