How did the words come about?

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How did the words come about?

The origin of the language is no less interesting mystery than the appearance of rational man himself. Moreover, it’s not the fact that some simple forms of communication appear at the level of individual sounds, notifying about something, but a modern language, or rather languages, are surprising.

In this article we will look at the main theories of the origin of a language.

Theories of the emergence of language

Evolution theory

At first glance, the history of the word as it develops, its communication, social skills, looks very plausible. Therefore, it is defended by many linguistic researchers. On the other hand, if you look at modern languages ​​and their ancient "ancestors", it becomes clear that over time the language did not become complicated (which would be logical based on the theory of evolution), but it was much simpler. And this already suggests the idea of ​​an erroneous approach. In addition, scientists do not have a single version of how the proto-language looked like - the very first, simple, symbolic one, from which the further development of the primary skills of verbal communication began.

Origin from the sounds of the animal world

Proponents of this approach believe that, as it develops, it has become more attentive to the world around it. In particular, he began to learn from animals the sounds with which they communicated with each other. Then a man gradually improved his set of sounds, putting them into words and assigning meanings. However, biologists categorically disagree with such an approach - they are convinced that the sounds of the animal world are necessary solely for the transfer of emotions, but in no way any concepts, judgments, conclusions. That is why the language of fauna representatives could not become the basis for the development of the language of people.

Theory of Divine Origin

This theory is based on the biblical vision of the emergence of the world. By creating man in his own image and likeness, God gave people, including the opportunity to communicate with each other through language. This version, although it has the right to exist, is still critically perceived by the scientific world, prone to atheism.

The sudden appearance of the tongue

This version tends to consider language as a skill that a person has always had, but for some reason was discovered by him only after a certain time.However, if you rely on such a view, the following questions remain open: who exactly “loaded” such a skill into a person; why people began to communicate with each other through language only after long centuries of evolution; Why is animal language different from human language? Why was not a single language originally created for all living beings on Earth?

It follows from the above that the occurrence of a word remains a mystery to this day. Nevertheless, linguists from different countries are doing everything possible to learn about the origin of words in their own languages ​​(including Russian). But this is a much more feasible task.

Etymology of the Russian word

The Russian language belongs to the Indo-European family, the Slavic group of languages. It contains both native Russian words (formed directly in the language at a particular stage of development) and borrowed (from Greek, Turkic, Arabic and other languages) that came to the Russian language due to cultural, economic, political contacts of Russian people with other nations.

In particular, the Russian language under Peter I was supplemented with many foreign words thanks to the reforms he conducted, the development of navigation in Russia, and also in the XVIII-XIX centuries due to close contacts between Russia and France.Another important period of enrichment of the Russian language with new words falls on the XX-XXI centuries (after the collapse of the USSR as a result of establishing ties with Europe, America).

The study of the origin of words engaged in the science of etymology. As an example, let us describe how the words "orange", "doctor" and "nonsense" occurred:

  • Orange. This citrus fruit was introduced to Europe from China. The name was borrowed from the Dutch language, in which the fruit was designated as “appelsien” (“appel” - apple and “sien” - Chinese) - that is, “Chinese apple”. Later, juicy orange fruit appeared in Russia. And in Europe, the name changed to "orange".
  • Doctor. In ancient times, healers, in addition to various medical devices and preparations, used conspiracies that were pronounced over the patient in order to ward off illness from him. In the Old Slavonic language the word "vrati" was used - "to speak, speak." It was from him that the originally Russian word "doctor" went.
  • Gibberish This word, today meaning something meaningless and empty, previously had a different meaning. So, in the XVII century in France, a doctor by the name of Gali Mathieu was well known - he was famous for his wonderful sense of humor.Considering that laughter contributes to a speedy recovery, he tried his best to make his patients laugh with witty jokes. After that, he even began to send encouraging humorous notes to patients directly in the mail.

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