How are cells that can produce antibodies. Where antibodies are produced
Today we learn how the cells are called,capable of producing antibodies. Also, let's talk about the purpose and method of producing the very antibodies. Consider the protective barriers of our body and the types of immunity.
What is important to understand before we move on tothe main issue of our article? The development of antibodies in the body occurs under the influence of antigens. Antibodies also have another name - immunoglobulins, they make up a whole class of glycoproteins. What is responsible for the development of this necessary element? Of course, the immune system, consisting of some organs:
- lymphoid structures.
The last in this list are responsible for the development of three types of cells:
Protective barriers to the body
If the body consists of a multitude of cells(multicellular), then it becomes endlessly attacked by various bacteria, microbes, parasites and so on. Of course, for a good and stable functioning of the body, we need barriers that prevent the parasites from penetrating into the body. In general, microbes have three obstacles:
- mucous membranes;
- environmental protection;
- internal environment of the body.
Skin and mucous membranes are not only a physical barrier. These organs are able to excrete saliva, fat, tear, sweat and so on. All this poses a mortal danger to microbes.
As for the ecological barrier, we are talking about useful microorganisms that are located on the surface of the skin and are capable of repelling an attack of pathogenic bacteria.
Last we marked the immunity. That is, the ability to maintain the consistency of the internal environment. Here the enemy is:
- tissue fluid and so on.
Now a little about how the cells are called,capable of producing antibodies. They are formed under the influence of B-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte and macrophages. So the plasma cells are formed, which are engaged in the production of antibodies and their transfer to the blood. It is important to know that not all the cells obtained are involved in the production of antibodies, some perform the function of memory, to re-develop in the event of danger.
Immunity and its types
We have already said that plasma cells that produce antibodies do not all perform this function. Some of them remember the antigen for producing antibodies if necessary.
Now we will talk about two forms of immunity:
The latter type is carried out by phagocytosis. It is needed to combat penetration of other microbes into the body. It is for this reason that he received the name "nonspecific".
Specific is different in that it responds toantigens. Then the antibodies come to the aid of the body. In the role of antigens can act and viruses, and microbes, and many other cells that differ from those that have the body.
Also, immunity can be classified as follows:
- cell (it is provided by phagocytes);
- humoral (antibodies found in human blood).
Now we will go into more detail about the question of what are called cells capable of producing antibodies. And, of course, to the description of the process of their appearance.
The formation of antibodies
So, we have already talked about the names of cells that can produce antibodies. But they did not mention the way they penetrated the blood.
Consider the process of interaction of antibodies andantigens. Suppose that a foreign body (antigen), for example, a bacterium, has entered the inner environment of a person. The blood already has an antibody, if this bacterium previously penetrated the human body. If not, a new one is created. Antigen and antibody are completely opposite in meaning concepts. These are substances that fit together like a keyhole and a key. When they meet, they begin to interact. As a result, an inactive and completely harmless compound is formed.
Antibodies are produced in plasma cells, formed by cooperating the following components:
It is also important to know that not all plasma cells are capable of producing antibodies, some of them possess memory that quickly reproduce the desired antibody in case of relapse.
We learned about where antibodies are produced, and how it happens. Now briefly on how to recognize the antigen. The immune response involves blood cells that are in:
- bone marrow;
- thymus (T-lymphocytes);
- lymph nodes (B-lymphocytes).
Each component component plays its owna specific function, namely: T-lymphocytes detect a foreign bacterium and transmit information to B-lymphocytes. The latter, in turn, produce the necessary antibodies.