Handicraft: definition, species. Hand-made products
Handicraft industry is the production of unique products with original idea that are used in everyday life and created by the hands of the master.
What does manual work for a person mean?
For the master it is an opportunity to realize the unique creation that he saw in his dreams. This is a painstaking and thorough finishing of every detail, so that the result is perfection.
For the buyer it is an opportunity to purchase an individual product that is filled with love and will make life brighter, expressing the identity of the person who purchased the handmade thing.
History of the origin of handicrafts
Handicrafts appeared along withthe emergence of man on earth. The items that were manufactured were always in demand, but the man, as far as he could, to their functionality sought to add an aesthetic component. On the basis of this, first developed unwritten rules that were passed from master to student. The best was fixed. So the canon was formed in some area. Traditions were passed on from generation to generation, secrets and recipes were kept. Handicraft art existed both in the village and in the town, when all families did objects of the same purpose, using approximately the same methods, but making their own personal thoughts, as best, in the tradition to decorate or change the form. Often, the products had the functions of amulets, because our ancestors sincerely believed in supernatural forces. They charged things with their good energy, putting their souls into their creatures. In mass production, this can not be replaced.
Crafts of ancient Russia
In urban areas before the Mongol-Tatarinvasions blacksmiths produced iron and steel weapons, axes, chisels, sickles, locks, keys. The jewelers minted non-ferrous metals, made gold, silver, copper and bronze ornaments. Weavers, potters, stonemasons worked in their workshops. Craftsmen worked leather and fur, wood. This was the development of handicrafts in the pre-Mongol period. But after the invasion of Batu all was destroyed, and many artisans were taken prisoner, and for a century the development of crafts was suspended. However, slowly and with the loss of skills and secrets, the trades began to recover, as life demanded.
Kinds of handicrafts
These are kinds of folk art, in which the national tradition is clearly visible. They can be divided into:
- paintings on ceramics, metal, papier-mâché, wood;
- articles made of cloth, that is, different types of lace on bobbins, down and painted headscarves;
- toys made of clay and wood;
- metal products - casting and filigree.
In such areas handicraft industry developed in Russia. Now these forms of creativity can be considered in more detail.
Twenty-seven villages near Moscow wereowners of natural material - pottery clay. And the production of ceramics began, as archaeologists say, about seven centuries ago. It became more complicated and, from simple unglazed items, went over to coating them with white glaze, and then applying a blue cobalt oxide image. To do this, bristles made of squirrel wool of various diameters were used. Several shades of paint are applied to one side of the brush. This allows you to create a darker, more saturated areas and light shadows. This skill, which is taught there, in Gzhel. The ceramics artist can not exactly repeat the pattern, and we get a unique painting, on which the curls and ornaments are just alike.
It is a village near Moscow, where almost two hundred years old tin trays are decorated with garden and field flowers on a black or colored background.The artist receives a sketch, designed by the designer, and starts working from the center, filling it with large roses that glow amazingly. There are secrets from the masters.
This village is not far from Moscow, where they decorate caskets and boxes made of papier-mache.Miniature drawings with oil paints are amazingly shining. This effect is obtained because before drawing to the surface, gold leaf and mother-of-pearl are applied.
History says that two skills have been combined here- turning turning of bowls, caskets, spoons, broatin and old-believing skills of icon painting. In the linen cloth covered several times, rub aluminum powder, then manually, without repeating anything, paint with oil paints, then cover with several layers of varnish and dry it in the oven. So do the golden Khokhloma.
Pottery folk crafts are widely represented by toys made of clay. They are made in many areas of our country. Particularly famous for such fishing is the village of Dymkovo in the Kirov region.In the Arkhangelsk Region, the production of toys inKargopol was always a family affair. The most popular figure was Polkan - a fairy creature, similar to a dog and a man with epaulettes. In the village of Filimonovo, Tula region, girls were making whistles from clay, collecting money for dowry, and men were making dishes. Toys without watering (terracotta in its pure form) since ancient times did in the Starooskolsky district of the Belgorod region. All toys are handmade products. It is impossible not to mention candlesticks, jugs, kvassniki, frames for the mantel clock, which create the glory of Mr. Skopin in the Ryazan region.
Vologda, Yelets and Mtsensk lace is valued in Russia, which always wore on bobbins. These are all handmade products.
In the Urals in Kasli cast amazing figures of cast iron. Once they could be bought in stores.Now this unique product that will stand forever, with careful elaboration of details has disappeared from the shelves, and it probably can only be found in online stores.
Manufacture of products in small batches
Or else it can be called "cottageproduction. "These days, this way they make designer clothes, for example, handicrafts are also the work of jewelers and furniture makers, this type of activity implies the division of operations, for example, when manufacturing Zhostovo trays, someone makes trays of various forms, someone covers them Someone paints them with varnish, the same thing happens in Gzhel, Khokhloma, Skopin, mentioned above.
Russia is extremely rich in talents, original approach and high quality handmade products.