Grenade F-1: photo, specifications, damage radius
In the entire history of man was created a lot of different deadly means. No less effective, along with assault rifles, pistols, carbines, rifles and artillery pieces, is a “pocket shell” - a hand grenade. With the help of this explosive ammunition, military equipment is successfully incapacitated and the enemy’s living force is destroyed. Soviet soldiers used the F-1 hand grenades to the Great Patriotic War. Today they are in service with the armies of the CIS countries, Africa and Latin America. On the basis of the Soviet model were made copies of Iraqi, Chinese and Bulgarian designers. The high popularity of the F-1 grenade is due to its high combat qualities.
Humanity is constantly fighting and using the most deadly devices. Victims are both soldiers of the warring parties and civilians.Since during the explosion of the F-1 grenade, many fragments fly apart in different directions, the number of dead and wounded may increase significantly. The fact that this or that weapon possesses the damaging factors is mainly known to the military. Being knowledgeable in this area will not prevent civilians. Information on the device, principle of operation and tactical and technical characteristics of the F-1 grenade is contained in the article.
F-1 is a hand-held anti-personnel grenade. The technical documentation is listed under the index GRAU 57-G-721. This is an explosive ordnance with a significant radius of scatter of fragments. Therefore, f-1 combat grenades can be thrown from shelters, from armored personnel carriers and tanks. Manual projectile is designed for use in defensive combat. The goal is delivered manually by throwing.
On the history of creation. How did it all begin?
In 1922, by order of the military leadership of the Red Army, an audit was conducted in warehouses with artillery ammunition. At that time, the Red Army had seventeen types of grenades. Nevertheless, among the large range of fragmentation-defensive models of products of domestic production was not. The Red Army soldiers used grenades made according to the Mills system.At least 200 thousand units of such hand shells were stored in warehouses. Also used French ammunition - F-1 1915 release. However, this “pocket shell” had a very unreliable fuse. Since the cardboard case was not tight enough, dampening of the detonation composition occurred, with the result that French grenades often did not work or exploded in the hands of soldiers. In a report to the military department of the Red Army, it was indicated that the Soviet army provided only 0.5% with explosives of a fragmentation-defensive type. In 1925, all explosive devices in artillery depots were tested. The task of the expert commission was to choose the best option, which could later be used to design the Soviet grenade. After testing, the choice fell on the explosive devices of the Mills 1914 model and the F-1.
What was planned?
The artillery committee of the Red Army set the following tasks:
- Improve the Mills grenade and increase its damaging properties.
- Design a similar fragmentation projectile.
- Modernize the French F-1 grenades by replacing the Swiss fuses with more advanced ones manufactured in 1920 by F. Koveshnikov.
In 1926, the French F-1 grenades, equipped with Koveshnikov’s fuses, were tested again. After successful tests and minor constructive improvements, this ammunition was adopted by the Red Army in 1928. Since then, the “pocket” projectile has been listed as F-1 grenade. Koveshnikov's fuse was used until 1942. In the years of the Great Patriotic War, he was finalized. After the war, a more perfect and reliable standard unified fuse (UZRGM), developed by Soviet designers E. Vitsen and A. Bednyakov, was designed for the grenade.
About the design
F-1 consists of the following parts:
- Fuse. Grenade F-1 is equipped with a universal fuse, which also fits to such models as RGD-5 and RG-42.
- Explosive (BB). For equipment F-1 using trotyl. For one grenade 60 g of this explosive are provided. Trinitrophenol can also be used. In this case, according to military experts, the grenade has increased destructive abilities.However, F-1 with trinitrophenol can not be stored for a long time, because after the expiration of such munitions are considered very dangerous. Checkers of explosives from metal cases isolate by means of a varnish, paraffin or paper. It is also possible option equipment projectile pyroxylin mixture.
- Metal shell. The explosive device is contained in a special ribbed oval-shaped body. For the manufacture of shells used steel cast iron. The task of the fins is to form fragments of a certain size and mass during an explosion. In addition, due to the ribbed shape, according to experts, F-1 is better to hold in your hand. However, some experts believe that such a design is inexpedient, since quite often with the explosion and crushing of steel cast iron, many small fragments are formed. According to experts, finning does not affect the effectiveness of damaging elements.
Military F-1 is often called "lemon". According to one of the versions, such a slang name is due to the fact that the Soviet grenade is similar to the English manual ammunition of the Lemon system. She also looks like a lemon.Thanks to this form, it is convenient to tie explosive devices to pegs. Photo grenade F1 presented in the article.
About color design
Green colors (mostly khaki and dark green) are used to paint the bodies of explosive devices. In educational grenades F-1 metal shells are black.
Also on the body of educational and simulation products must be two white stripes. Additionally, there are holes in the non-combat grenades below. The primers do not paint. In training models rings checks and lower parts of the clamping levers of scarlet color.
Grenades F-1 contained in special wooden boxes of 20 pieces. Separate storage is provided for unified fuses. They are placed in two sealed, sealed cans of 10 pieces each and placed in a box of grenades. The detonating mixtures, in the fuses packaged in this way, are not oxidized and are reliably protected from corrosive processes. One can opener is attached to the box, with the help of which they open cans with UZRG. Fuses grenades equip only before operation. At the end of the battle, the fuses are removed and kept away from the explosive devices.
About the device UZRG
Unified fuse consists of the following elements:
- Security check. It represents a ring to which two wire pieces are attached. They are passed through a hole in the case and bent on the back of the fuse. Their task is to prevent accidental loss of checks, which is used to block the drummer, does not allow him to interact with the primer-primer.
- Drummer. It is presented in the form of a metal rod, one end of which is pointed and directed towards the primer. The second end is equipped with a special protrusion, with the help of which the hammer is connected to the trigger lever. The head is equipped with a special spring.
- The trigger lever. Presented in the form of a curved metal plate, the purpose of which is to block the striker after the safety check is removed.
- Primer igniter. Used to ignite the moderator.
- Detonating mixture. Contained in blasting cap. Used to explode explosives.
- Moderator. With this element in the grenade, the igniter and the detonator are connected.The moderator is designed to transmit through a certain time period of fire, namely detonation and detonation.
How does it work?
The drummer is in the spring-loaded position and securely fixed with a fuse plug. The upper end of the combat spring is in contact with the chamfer of the guide washer, the lower end - with the washer, which is equipped with a drummer. The safety lever is held using a special pin. It is located on the security check. The task of the pin is to prevent the lever from moving relative to the grenade body. Before use, the safety check is first removed. The lever is securely held. After the throw, he turns, resulting in the release of the drummer, who is under the influence of the mainspring. Then he hits the primer igniter, causing the retarder to ignite. As it burns down, the flame approaches the detonator, which is why the manual projectile explodes.
About tactical features
According to experts, due to its characteristics, F-1 grenades are dangerous at a distance of up to 200 m.The continuous defeat of manpower by fragments occurs within a radius of seven meters. At such a distance even small fragments can be deadly. If the object is located at a distance (over a hundred meters), only the largest fragments of the hull can hook it. Damaging elements move at a speed of 720 m / s. The optimum weight of one fragment is 2 g. When operating grenades in a combat situation, the following nuances are taken into account. F-1 is especially effective in small spaces, since fragments can ricochet from the floor and ceiling. In this case, the enemy will have no chance of escape, even if he has time to hide. In addition, the enemy can get a contusion and barotrauma from the explosion of a grenade. The disoriented adversary is then destroyed using another weapon.
About the technical characteristics
- Grenade F-1 weighs no more than 600 g.
- The case size in diameter is 5.5 cm, height together with the fuse is 11.7 cm.
- Trotyl is used as the main explosive.
- The mass of explosives - 60 g.
- To the goal the grenade is delivered manually. Throw range - up to 60 m.
- The fuse is designed for a time interval from 3.1 to 4.1 s.
- When undermining the F-1 grenade, the damage radius is 50 m.
- The function of striking elements is performed by fragments of steel cast iron in the amount of 300 pieces.
- Fighting grenade F1 is considered relatively safe at a distance of at least 200 m from the place of its fall.
According to military experts, the F-1 grenade has the following advantages:
- Due to the special design of the hull, during the explosion, its natural crushing occurs with the formation of striking elements.
- The manufacture of all-metal monolithic cases due to constructive simplicity is possible at any industrial enterprises. Through the use of steel cast iron for the production of grenades f-1 does not require large financial investments.
- In a combat situation, the projectile can be equipped with either regular TNT or any other explosive available.
- Judging by the reviews, with the help of this grenade you can successfully storm various mines and tunnels of medium diameters. According to experts, if F-1 is thrown into the well, after the explosion, everything inside it will be thrown out with the water.
- Due to the remote action of the F-1, you can throw in the shelter to the enemy, using for this purpose walls or other solid surfaces.
Despite the presence of undeniable merits, the F-1 grenade is not without some drawbacks. Weaknesses can be attributed to the weaknesses:
- During the rupture of the "shirt" there are too many small non-slaughter fragments. According to experts, about 60% of the mass of the body have low efficiency. At the same time, too large fragments are formed, due to which the number of striking elements with an optimal size is reduced.
- The large weight of the grenade adversely affects the maximum range of the throw.
About sabotage use
According to experts, with the help of F-1 grenades, special bookmarks are put up, which are also called stretch marks. Manual projectile may remain visible.
However, mainly F-1 camouflage securely. Stretching is an anti-sapper combination of two grenades connected by a cord or wire. Often attention focuses on one of the ammunition. It is neutralized by cutting the cable. At the same time, the second grenade fires. Bookmarks are also made from one F-1. However, according to experts, such stretch marks are ineffective.