Global Ecology Problems and Ways to Solve them
By the second half of the twentieth century, the economic impact of mankind on its surrounding nature had reached such destructive proportions that it practically lost the capacity for self-recovery.
Global problems of ecology and sustainable development - the problems of cessation of the harmful impact of mankind on the environment.
In the middle of the last century, ecology wasthe internal affair of a particular country, since the effects of pollution due to industrial activities were manifested only in areas with an excessively high concentration of harmful industries. In the eighties, environmental problems acquired a regional level, as emissions began to reach neighboring countries, coming along with precipitation, wind.
In the nineties, globalenvironmental problems of mankind. They are manifested in such negative trends as the destruction of the global ecosystem, the loss of resources for self-recovery, the expansion of zones of ecological disaster. But the most serious danger of modernity is climate change. The average annual temperature is increasing, the frequency and intensity of extreme natural phenomena increase accordingly: floods, droughts, tornadoes, sharp frosts and thaws. In addition, warming can lead to rising sea levels, flooding significant areas, exacerbating the scarcity of fresh water. All this causes serious damage to nature and humanity.
Climate change is associated with an increase in concentrationin an atmosphere of greenhouse gases, that is, an intensification of the "greenhouse effect". Harmful gases enter the atmosphere from fuel combustion, forest information and so on. However, there is another opinion, according to which the cause is not global problems of ecology, but the age-old rhythms of solar activity and climatic cycles.
Impact of pollution
The main effects of pollution arethe fact that irreparable harm to the health of animals and humans is inflicted, too polluted territories become unsuitable for human habitation and normal economic activity. The main environmental problems of today, if not addressed, can eventually lead to the fact that the biosphere will completely lose its ability to self-purge and break down.
Aggravation of global environmental problemsled to a change in the state policies of many countries with regard to environmental protection. The authorities began to set environmental standards, spend large sums on environmental measures.
In the eighties the world communityrealized that global environmental problems can not be solved within individual states. The concept of sustainable development was developed, according to which it is necessary to ensure the development of countries taking into account the needs of not only the current but also the future generation. As a result, a contradiction arose: how to ensure sustainable development and simultaneously reduce the negative impact on the environment. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted, which determines the maximum amount of emissions of harmful greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The main objective of the Protocol is to reduce emissions by 5.2% in comparison with the level of 1990.
To date, many developed countries have alreadycould significantly reduce the level of pollution or at least stabilize it. It should be noted that reducing the level of harmful emissions will cost the developed countries very expensive, and the benefits will be evident only in the long term. However, the global problems of ecology require solution, but all the costs will have to be incurred now, so that later it does not become too late.