Functions of the medulla oblongata and other parts of the rhomboid brain
Traditionally, in the anatomy examinations innonmedical universities to the question of the hindbrain are responsible for the maximum number of errors. Why is this happening? The fact is that this name is a unit of different levels. In one case, the brain is called the rhomboid brain, in the second - a small formation, which is called the actual hindbrain (includes the bridge and the cerebellum). Confusing the first formation with the second is impossible, because the second is part of the first.
The rhomboid brain is the most ancient formation,it is found even in reptiles. In humans, it performs more simple functions than reptiles, because complex functions assume newer formations - the middle and forebrain. However, when you read about the hindbrain, you do not get tired of wondering how close all species are to each other and you are convinced that all life is in principle built according to one scheme, only in more advanced species is the individual elements somewhat complicated.
Functions of the hindbrain in a broad sense (weremember that in this case, "back" - a synonym for "diamond-shaped") are very diverse, they include the functions of the medulla oblongata, bridge and cerebellum. The most logical thing to start a discussion with a story about the medulla oblongata, because this part is directly connected with the spinal cord and is unusually ancient.
So, the functions of the medulla oblongata as a whole can bedivided into two classes. First, its structures conduct impulses from "subordinates" and from the most oblong brain higher, to more authoritative centers. However, there is also a second class of functions - actually the function of the medulla oblongata, it has its own tasks, which the centers outside the rhomboid brain do not control closely. This department is the responsible "executor", which once again does not bother the "boss", and he understands the "turnover". What are the functions of the medulla oblongata relatively autonomous?
First, there are receptor contentcarbon dioxide in the blood, it makes us breathe not oxygen deficiency, but excess carbon dioxide. Therefore, if a person forces himself to breathe deeply for a while, carbon dioxide goes away more than usual, and breathing is inhibited. After that, a person feels a deficiency of oxygen. Remember your feelings when the doctor asks to breathe deeply - many people after that are dizzy because of the fact that too much carbon dioxide has gone and breathing is not stimulated. The oblong brain controls the inhalation and exhalation, although it also has a small "boss" - a bridge that sets the rhythm of breathing.
Secondly, the functions of the medulla oblongata includein itself control the work of the heart. This center receives impulses from both types of autonomous system. Its sympathetic part is responsible for mobilization reactions in extreme situations, and parasympathetic for relaxation and recovery. It is clear that they both control the work of the heart, speeding up or slowing down the rhythm. And the medulla oblongata helps to coordinate their activity. However, "from above" commands can come to him from the emotional centers of the brain - subcortical structures, and then the palpitation considerably becomes more frequent.
Thirdly, there is a vasomotor center,who deals with pressure. This part actively interacts with other parts of the brain, for example, with the hypothalamus, but in ordinary situations the medulla obliterates independently.
Fourth, the medulla oblongata is concerned with what we normally do not realize. Congenital reflexes, that is, coughing, vomiting, sneezing, swallowing.
Let us return to other parts of the rhomboid brain andlet's talk about the proper hindbrain. Its part - the bridge - carries out the transition from inspiration to exhalation and vice versa. It also houses the centers of several pairs of cranial nerves. Functions of the cerebellum are coordination of movements and motor memory (together with higher centers).
As we see, the rhomboid brain performs the vital functions of the brain, that is, necessary for survival every second. Therefore, the brain is so vulnerable to damage to these areas.