Founders of Odessa: the history of the city, monuments and interesting facts
In the world there is hardly a city comparable toOdessa for the indescribable color of her life. It manifests itself in the charm of southern nature, the architecture of the city, whimsically combining samples of a variety of styles and directions. But the main thing, of course, in its inhabitants is a completely unique people, called Odessa, speaking only one peculiar to it in the "Odessa" language. Who founded this city on the shore of the blueest in the world of the Black Sea?
How long ago it was!
If we talk with all objectivity, thenthe real founders of Odessa are not the Duke de Richelieu and not the gracious prince GA Potemkin, who is credited with this honor. The first inhabitants of Odessa were our common ancestors - inhabitants of the Paleolithic era, whose archaeological sites are still found on the western shore of Kuyalnik Bay. After them already in the first millennium BC on the beaches of the Odessa bay were seen holidayers from the Cimmerian tribe. Two and a half thousand years ago they were replaced by the Scythians, who also fell in love with the sun and the splash of the Black Sea waves.
But the laws of history are inexorable. And soon these savages were superseded by the Greeks, who by that time had learned all the charm of a high civilization. Having created factories in the districts of present-day Luzanovka, as well as the trading port of the trading post (or, to put it mildly, trade settlements), the sons of Ellada stayed there until the 2nd century AD. They also left a wide field for activities to modern archaeologists. But they disappeared from these places, not entering history as the founders of Odessa. They did not deserve this honor.
The Middle Ages and their characters
During the Middle Ages the entire vast area,adjacent to the Odessa bay, repeatedly became the prey of foreign conquerors. Here the ancient Slavic tribes of ulcers and tivertzes were dominated, Tatar hordes swept through them, before them the predatory hand of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania reached out. Until finally, in the XVIII century, the period of Ottoman rule did not come.
The highest order of the Empress Mother
Where the Acacia of Primorsky rustle todayboulevard, there once stood the Turkish fortress of Yeni Dunya, which had the misfortune to draw the attention of General IV Gudovich, who followed in 1789 at the head of the Russian troops to the Bendery. His advance squad under the command of Count Josef Jose de Ribas captured the citadel at dawn on September 13, preventing the faithful from completing the morning prayer, inscribing the fortress as one of the trophies of the Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1791.
Two years after this, Iaski was imprisoneda peace treaty that put an end to hostilities. According to the document, a significant territory that received the name of Novorossia left the Russian scepter. In its western part, on the Black Sea coast, the Empress Catherine II, by her decree of May 27, 1794, ordered the construction of the city, fortress and port. Thus, the stroke of the monarch's pen received the right to live this unique city.
Name given to the newborn
The founders of Odessa began their work exactly throughthree months. The first pile in the ground was preceded by a solemn moleben with sprinkling it with holy water. Wishing to give the future city truly European features, the Empress commissioned a project for the construction of the Dutch engineer-architect Francois de Vollan, who joined the Russian service in 1787 under the patronage of the Russian ambassador in The Hague.
So it is in the world that at his birthnot only babies get names, but whole cities. A year after the construction began, this stone newborn was first named by its real name - Odessa, which, according to the researchers, originated from the name of another ancient Greek city, Odessosy, which was once a little east of the present Tiligul estuary.
Deribas is the founder of Odessa
The city, born by decree of the Empress, was erectedunder the direct supervision of one of the heroes of the Catherine's epoch, Vice Admiral Joseph de Ribas, the most dashing warrior who once took the Turkish fortress of Yeni Dunya. The Spanish nobleman by origin, always driven forward by the thirst for adventure, he lived a life vivid and full of the most incredible adventures, capable of serving as a storyline for more than one adventure novel.
As the founder of Odessa and its first mayor,de Ribas immortalized his name in the name of the main street Deribasovskaya. That is, in a word, without the separation of the French aristocratic prefix "de", its residents call it Odessa. The monument to this well-deserved person was established only in 1994 by the inhabitants of the city, timed to celebrate the bicentenary of their city.
The second Odessa mayor
When in 1803 de Ribas was transferred toPetersburg, in his luxurious mansion the office and residential quarters of the next mayor, who also went down in history as the founder of Odessa, was located. It was no less famous than its predecessor, the Duke de Richelieu - a French aristocrat, who entered the Russian service after the Great French Revolution. His monument, which crowned the Potemkin Stairs, became a kind of visiting card of the city.
The Duke was exceptionally intelligent and talentedadministrator. During his reign (1803-1815), the city was widely built, many new streets appeared, gardens were destroyed, Orthodox and Catholic churches, a synagogue, barracks, a market were opened, several educational institutions were opened and a pond for fresh water was created, that at that time was very relevant.
The fruits of the rule of worthy people
Thanks to his wise leadership, in Odessa, asnowhere else, there is a favorable environment for the development of trade. Despite the wide powers granted to him by Alexander I, the second founder of Odessa, the duke (duke) de Richelieu, was clever enough to rid the local trade of petty administrative care, leaving the merchant himself to choose a convenient path for the development of their business. This he attracted a significant number of Russian and foreign businessmen to the city, and, accordingly, their capitals.
These two people, the founders of Odessa, -Vice Admiral Joseph de Ribas and the Duke de Reschille - created the city, which became not only the economic and cultural center of Novorossia, but also a powerful fortification fortification on the Black Sea, which more than once in history reflected the attacks of the enemy.
The fearless and generous Count Langeron
In 1815 the seat of the mayor of Odessa tookanother no less worthy person - Count Alexander Fedorovich Langeron. His name he covered with glory on the walls of Ishmael, in the assault of which he took part alongside AV Suvorov. As contemporaries testified, in addition to desperate courage, its main quality was generosity, which made it necessary to share the last penny with anyone who asked for it.
Having achieved the right for the city for thirty yearsit is almost duty-free to import goods (porto-franco regime), he enriched it enrichingly, but after his death left only a small house and an almost ruined farm. In Odessa, during the years of the reign of Alexander Fyodorovich, the Botanical Garden and several parks appeared, the first newspaper in the city was published and Richelieu Lyceum opened its doors, which became the second in Russia after the famous Tsarskoye Selo.
City of brilliance and luxury
In the future, a glorious galaxy of city governorsthe Prince Mikhail Vorontsov added. Thanks to him, Odessa acquired an aristocratic brilliance. Owning a colossal estate, being in kinship with the highest nobility of Russia and England, he managed to attract many representatives of the high society to the city and those who, without a loud name, had nevertheless a solid status. In this prince helped his wife - the Polish aristocrat Countess Bronitskaya. Thanks to her connections, many rich families moved to Odessa from Poland.
This contributed to further prosperitycommerce, the emergence of new theaters and restaurants. The city, prosperous from the grain and other branches of trade, was constantly expanding and improving itself. Having secured the extension of the port-franco for another ten years, Prince Vorontsov made Odessa the largest trade center in the south of Russia.
The memory of the founders of Odessa
In 2007, on Ekaterininskaya Square, the city wasrestored in 1900 and dismantled under Soviet rule, a monument to the founders of Odessa. This composition by the sculptor Mikhail Popov represents the figure of Catherine II, raised on a high pedestal, and four of her companions standing at the base of it. Among them - mentioned already de Ribas, as well as the most prominent figures of the era GA Potemkin, de Volan and PA Zubov. Each of them left its mark on the history of the city.
This was a significant event in the culturallife of the settlement. Odessa in general is unusually rich in monumental works of masters of the past centuries and our days. Many of them are recognized masterpieces. It is a monument to Duke de Richelieu, which adorns the Primorsky Boulevard, Prince Vorontsov on Cathedral Square, Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz at the beginning of Aleksandrovsky Prospekt and many others that make up the glory of Odessa.
Despite the fact that the history has kept the names onlythose who by virtue of their high social and official position exerted a noticeable influence on its growth and development, the true founders of the city, whose Odessa remembers, are those who, with their own hands, created it two or three centuries ago on the sun-baked Black Sea coast. By their labor a miracle was born, sung by many poets, which became the birthplace of many remarkable people. It is the people who are the true founder of Odessa. The history of the city is a testament to this.