Fire hydrant: device and principle of operation, installation requirements
To combat the destructive effects of fires can be used a variety of means. Nowadays, fire hydrants are used for more effective fire fighting. The device and the principle of operation of this equipment, we consider in our today's article.
How does this unit?
In Russia, there are two types of these mechanisms - Leningrad and Moscow. The latter are more popular because of the affordable price, high reliability and more convenient installation. However, with regard to the design features of these fire hydrants, the device and the principle of their operation are almost identical.
Any hydrant consists of a housing, a valve and a housing for it, a branch pipe, a nipple for mounting a fire hose or a column, and a cap. Cast iron and steel are chosen as the material for manufacturing. Due to this, the life of fire-fighting equipment can reach 18 years or more.
During a fire, the cover is folded back, the column is screwed onto the thread so that the gaskets are tightly compressed. The handle of the column must be turned counterclockwise. This will turn the bar with the clutch attached to it. The rod will cause the spindle to rotate, which will open the valve. Through the last water will be fed to the column.
There are two types of fire hydrants. The device and the principle of their operation practically do not differ. These are elevated and underground solutions. The first devices are installed above ground together with a KPA column. Underground installed in wells equipped with hatches. The column is screwed on them before water supply. In Russia, the most popular and sought after are underground fire hydrants. This is due to the fact that most of the water supply networks are underground. Access to them is possible only with the direct availability of a hydrant and a fire column. Liquid supply by such units is carried out smoothly.
Ground equipment in our country is used much less frequently. These types of devices have a more complex structure.Such solutions are most often mounted on a manhole. But there is a group of devices designed for installation on the soil surface. In order for such a water intake to function normally, a water source is needed nearby. There is a GOST for a fire hydrant. This is GOST 8220-85 and P53961-2010. This document contains all regulatory requirements.
Rules for the installation of underground hydrants
Installation of this equipment should be carried out strictly in accordance with the norms and standards. GHGs of various dimensions and shapes are allowed for operation. The fire fighting equipment must be on the surface without fail. The fluid that circulates inside the pipeline system has a temperature of not less than +1 degree. If the temperature is lower, it is not possible to use this equipment.
As for the liquid in the water supply, according to its requirements, the temperature should be +5 degrees. At the same time, the maximum permissible figure cannot exceed +50 degrees. As for the pressure of the medium, it is allowed no more than 10 MPa.
Installation of an underground fire hydrant in special wells is possible only vertically.For reliability, regulatory documents recommend the use of a stand. Before installing the equipment, it is washed with water from a well.
Requirements for wells
Fire safety specialists recommend contacting professionals who provide the necessary services, including calculating the parameters of the well where the water intake mechanism will be installed. But if for some reason it is impossible to contact the relevant company, the calculations can be performed independently. However, we must bear in mind that this entails serious responsibility. The wells, where the installation of a fire hydrant will be carried out, also have certain requirements.
Do not drill them too deep. Hydrant fluid should not be supplied from the well. Also, there is no need for pre-treatment of water that is supplied from the plumbing system. The main requirement is that there should not be any large particles in the liquid.
The diameter of the well to install the hydrant is at least 80 centimeters. This is necessary so that the fire extinguishing device can be operated normally.As materials for the construction of wells, according to the requirements of GOST, a pipe made of polymers or reinforced concrete rings is recommended. Requirements for fire hydrants do not allow installation of the unit in an unprepared well. Even the slightest displacement of the soil will cause the earth to fall.
Requirements for GHG
There are several critical factors that should be considered before installing fire fighting intake equipment. So, the highlight is the height of the building and the number of floors. It is important to know the flow of water that is required to put out a specific building in case of a fire. The capacity of the hydrant is also taken into account.
Requirements for elevated mechanisms
The following requirements are put forward to such water intake equipment. So, from a hydrant to the walls of a building there should be a distance of not less than 50, and not more than 100 meters. According to GOST, the fire hydrant should be positioned so that the distance from the edge of the road to the device is at least 2.5 meters. Installing equipment on roadways is strictly prohibited.
The distance to the nearest building should be at least five meters.If there are auxiliary plumbing lines, the installation of the hydrant cannot be performed. The cross section of the water transfer pipes must be at least 100 millimeters for urban communications. For villages, the cross section should be 75 millimeters. Water consumption per hydrant is at least 15 liters per second. Fire hose must be at least 200 meters long. The design and principle of operation of a fire hydrant is necessary for everyone who works in an enterprise to know.
Requirements for underground units
The distance from the hydrant to the wall of the well should not be less than 17.5 centimeters. The distance from the end of the riser to the manhole cover can vary from 15 to 40 centimeters. If there is a possibility that the well will flood, then the hydrant must be equipped with a check valve of a special design. In the process of installation, be sure to apply the stand. They prevent water leaks from fire fighting equipment.
Features of operation and responsible persons
After installation, the hydrant must be tested. Also, inspections of equipment are carried out periodically, such a check is carried out every six months.The hydrant is controlled by a person who is responsible for fire safety at the enterprise or organization. The responsible person provides the possibility of free use of the unit regardless of the time of day, as well as the season. In the event of a pressure drop, it is necessary to report the accident to the nearest emergency department.
You also need to install a special sign of the fire hydrant. It may look different: be volumetric, with a lamp in the middle, or flat, but with reflective paint. The pointer must be on pillars, walls or in any places where it will be clearly visible. The sign of the fire hydrant should also contain information about the location of the equipment and the diameter of its pipes.
So, we found out what a hydrant is, how it works and how it works.