Fire extinguishers: types and purposes, application
In modern life, one should always be ready forany possible situation. Fire-fighting measures must be observed both in the residential building and in the enterprises. Fire extinguishers should be available in every apartment, car, production room. This article is devoted to the topic: "Fire extinguishers: types and purpose". Consider what they are, where they are used and how they are used.
Types of fire extinguishers
Theme: "Fire extinguishers: types and purpose" is rather confusing, but if you study it carefully, it will be easy to understand everything.
The volume of the container is divided into:
- manual - up to five liters;
- industrial manual - from five to ten liters;
- stationary and mobile - ten or more liters.
By the principle of displacement, they are divided into two types:
- Mobile - have a large volume, move themusing a special platform. Such fire extinguishers are used in large production facilities and warehouses. Due to their volume, they are able to cope with large fires.
- Portable - mobile due to a relatively small amount. Usually used in small rooms and are not designed to eliminate large-scale fires.
Methods of supplying content to the outside
According to this principle, fire extinguishers are divided into certain groups. Content goes:
- under the pressure of gases that are pumped into the body;
- under its own pressure of the extinguishing agent pumped inside;
- under the pressure of gases in the can, which is built into the fire extinguisher;
- under the pressure of gases formed as a result of the chemical reaction of the components that are present inside the extinguisher.
Types by type of work
By type of work, fire extinguishers are divided into two types: automatic and manual. The first are installed at a certain place in the room, which will be serviced by them. They extinguish fire in automatic mode. Manual extinguishers are operated by a person. All nonstationary samples work on this principle.
Types of launch device and types of matter inside the cylinder
By type of launcher fire extinguishers are divided into:
- having a valve gate;
- pistol type;
- with starting from a pressure source.
According to the contents of the cylinder, fire extinguishers are:
The main difference between fire extinguishersis not in the way they move and work, but in the substance inside. Various fillers are used for different types of ignition. For example, a fire extinguisher effective in an apartment will be practically useless in a production room. To purchase the right machine suitable for a particular room, you should familiarize yourself with the types of extinguishing agent.
Refueling of fire extinguishers is carried out in specialservices that have the appropriate license. Also pay attention to the expiration date. Such term of the fire extinguisher may be from 1.5 to 5 years depending on its filler. After the expiration of the time specified in the passport, the device should be recharged or replaced with a new one.
Such devices are used to eliminate firesClass A - ignition of solid and combustible substances. They can be filled with water, a solution of chemicals. If there is a note on such an apparatus that water contains special additives, then the fire extinguisher is suitable for extinguishing combustible liquid substances. This is a Class B fire. Note that water extinguishers are suitable only for the elimination of those fires listed above. They are the safest and environmentally friendly of all kinds. Use them is allowed only at plus temperature.
Gas fire extinguishers: types and purpose
There are several types:
- carbon dioxide (OS);
Gas vehicles can be either manual ormobile. Manual during work is forbidden to touch the tube, as this can be fraught with frostbite of the hand. Fire extinguishers of this type can not eliminate the ignition of those substances that burn without oxygen (alloys of aluminum, magnesium, sodium, etc.).
Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are filled with dioxidecarbon. They are used to extinguish electrical installations that are under voltage up to thousands of volts and the substances mentioned above. Also, the fire extinguisher is used to eliminate fires in rooms where the use of water is undesirable (museums, archives, libraries, etc.), because after use they leave almost no traces. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are excellent at burning flammable liquids on the fire area up to five square meters.
Aerosol devices contain halogenatedhydrocarbons. They are used to extinguish electrical installations, solids, flammable liquids. They can not extinguish alkalis and substances that contain oxygen. Uleacid-bromoethyl devices work on the same principle.
Foam fire extinguishers
They fall into two categories:
- fire extinguishers foam;
- fire extinguishers air-foam.
Let's consider in more detail the topic: "Foam extinguishers: types and purposes ". The foam machine has a wide range of applications. In addition to cases where foam can be a conductor of electricity. In other words, it is impossible to extinguish electrical installations that are under tension by these devices. Filled with a fire extinguisher foam, consisting of aqueous solutions of acids and alkalis. For this reason, it is forbidden to extinguish alkali metals from them, because the reverse reaction will begin. Water contained in the foam, will allocate hydrogen, which will enhance the combustion. Such devices are mainly used to eliminate air-mechanical and chemical fires. They are remarkably able to cope with the ignition of solids, flammable liquids.
Air-foam fire extinguishers are used forelimination of the initial stage of ignition of liquid and solid substances. They also can not be used to extinguish electrical appliances, alkali metals and substances that burn without oxygen. The permitted temperature range for the use of these devices is 5-50 degrees with a plus sign.
Powder fire extinguishers (OP)
The most common type. OP-extinguisher is used to extinguish virtually any type of fires, including electrical installations under voltage up to thousands of volts. Exception - alkali metals and substances that can burn without oxygen. OP-fire extinguisher is filled with powders of general or special purpose. The former are used to extinguish materials that contain carbon (gases, wood), the latter are used to eliminate the ignition of aluminum compounds and pyrophoric substances. Filling of fire extinguishers of this type is carried out every five years.