Factory "Hammer and Sickle". Sickle and Hammer Factory, Moscow
Metallurgy was almost always the mainthe backbone of our country, supplying much-needed raw materials for the production of machines for the national economy, the army and science. Of course, its development went through many difficult stages, because everything began in a rather gloomy time ...
One of the brightest representatives of the metallurgical industry is the Serp i Molot plant.
How it all began
In 1883, enterprising businessman Guzhonbuilt in Moscow a small company, intended for the smelting of steel. In seven years the first open-hearth furnace began to work, fuel for which in those days was fuel oil. In 1913 almost 90 thousand tons of steel were smelted, and by that time seven kilns already worked. The plant was mainly engaged in the production of not too high-grade steel, rivets, wires and bolts.
After the Revolution
In 1918 the enterprise underwentnationalization. The factory, which practically lost all qualified personnel, got a very difficult legacy. Compared with 1913, the output decreased by 50 times. In 1921, IR Burdachov was appointed to the post of director of the enterprise, who in the past himself worked as a metal worker. In many respects it was thanks to him that the production was completely restored and modernized.
In the same year there was a factory "Hammer and Sickle". By 1925 the director was PF Stepanov, who by 1928 still managed to bring the amount of steel to 1913 level. By 1931 the plant became one of the leading enterprises of the association "Spetsstal", which provided the country with quality raw materials for production.
Since 1938 the production was headed by GM Il'in. It is with the name of this talented leader that a sharp increase in the amount of steel smelted is associated. Already in 1939 he was awarded the Order of Lenin, which in those years was awarded a large sum of money and universal recognition.
During the war years, production did not stopfor a minute. Despite the fact that the employees of the enterprise were not subject to conscription to the front, hundreds of talented steelworkers and metallurgists still left the plant to fight the invaders. The whole burden of work fell on the shoulders of young workers and women. As follows from the records of those years, the plant "Hammer and Sickle" played a significant role in defeating the enemies.
But his workers were given it hard: in the archives of those years, a lot of information about how metallurgists simply fell into a hungry faint near the stoves. It remains only to marvel at their courage: such hard work exhausts even physically strong men, what can we say about half-starved teens!
The post-war period
Despite the hardest post-war devastation,After the war the enterprise rapidly increased its production rates, mastered new methods of smelting high-quality steel. So, already in 1949 the collective of the plant was awarded the State Prize for the technology of using oxygen during the smelting of metal in the Marten furnace. Soon this technological process was widely used not only in domestic factories, but also in foreign factories.
In addition, a year later a similar awardwas awarded to steelworkers who managed to drastically reduce the time spent on smelting metal. A significant increase in the quality and culture of production was achieved at about the same time as the furnaces were transferred from fuel oil to gas. From 1945 to 1971, the number of rolled products increased two-fold.
New technologies of smelting
Since 1963, a translation program has startedproduction for electricity. So, it was in those years that the technology of electroslag melting (ESL) was created and improved. Already in 1978, domestic computers were introduced into production.
Thanks to all these activities, only fiveyears the production of high-quality stainless steel was increased by 21% at once. Despite the fact that in 1973 there was a massive restructuring of the plant, the smelting of steel did not cease for a single day. Only in 1976 the last open-hearth furnace in Europe was stopped: further smelting of metal was continued by much more advanced technologies.
All the following time, until the collapseSoviet Union, the number of produced raw materials has continuously increased. The needs of agriculture and the army grew, a huge amount of metal was required to quickly build up the power of the Navy, the whole country built hydroelectric power plants and nuclear power plants, for the construction of which, too, needed metal in large quantities.
Most of the needs of the European part of the country was provided by the Moscow plant "Serp i Molot".
As for many enterprises in the country, this timeIt was marked by heavy changes in the life of the country. The number of government orders fell to zero, the agonizing state was not up to the release of steel. In 1990, production was virtually completely stopped.
Until the 2000s, the Sickle and the Hammer factory was engaged in the periodic production of products, which often had no relation to the main profile of the enterprise.
When in the early 2000s through the territoryalmost abandoned factory began to pull the Third Transport Ring, there were dozens of proposals for the most promising construction projects. As usual, dozens of ministries feuded among themselves, and so it was not possible to reach an agreement.
By 2007, it was finally decided that the huge abandoned territory of the Sickle and the Hammer Factory would be used to build the next business center.
By December, the plans had changed somewhat: it was planned to build not only shops, but also commercial, as well as residential real estate. It is not known why, but in 2012, not one foundation was laid. Independent sources suggest that the case in those 52% stake in the plant, which belong to the Government of the region, and therefore the building permit to obtain was not so simple.
What will become the territory on whichtoday there is a factory "Hammer and Sickle"? Moscow believes that new business districts should appear on this site. In addition, the construction of entertainment centers, a water park and other social infrastructure facilities is not excluded.
Unfortunately, today there are noa hint that "Hammer and Sickle", a metallurgical plant that provides the state's needs for high-quality steel in the recent past, may be restarted. However, many political and environmental organizations say that this is quite justified: a huge amount of dangerous emissions into the atmosphere, and even in the center of a densely populated megacity, the citizens obviously did not add health.
In addition, the feasibility of commissioninga large metallurgical plant, which is an object of strategic importance, not far from the western borders, is also questionable. Many experts agree that it would be better to place it on the territory of Siberia.
Where else is there a "Hammer and Sickle" plant? Saratov also has an enterprise of the same name, which also deals with the smelting of steel. In contrast to his Moscow "colleague", at present the company is engaged in its profile work. It is being reconstructed and modernized.
The eponymous factory is also in Kazan. He is engaged in the production of products for the machine-building industry and instrument making.