Encephalopathy: symptoms, causes, treatment methods and effects

The most serious diseases for humans are pathologies associated with the brain. Such diseases include encephalopathy, the symptoms of which appear from the first minute of birth. This disease is extremely serious and does not tolerate slowness in treatment. It can be fatal if you do not start to fight it in time. Encephalopathy is the pathological process of the brain. This does not include inflammatory lesions and changes.

encephalopathy symptoms

Causes

In most cases, this is a congenital disease, but sometimes the pathology can have an acquired origin. Acquired encephalopathy in most cases is a complication caused by vascular diseases, hypovitaminosis, alcoholism, intoxication or infectious diseases, brain injuries.

A congenital form of the disease develops already in the womb due to oxygen starvation of the fetus.Other causes of perinatal (congenital) encephalopathy include intrauterine infections, fertility of the fetus and maternal illness. Children whose parents have problems with the central nervous system are primarily at risk.

Symptoms

A suspicion of encephalopathy arises even when, at birth, the cry of a child is weak and belated. On the development of the disease can also talk: the passive state of the child, prolonged crying without a clear reason, regurgitation, a violation of innate reflexes, cyanosis of the skin. In some cases, when the diagnosis of brain encephalopathy is possible, the symptoms disappear over time. In others, they develop and strengthen, and can no longer do without medical intervention.

 cerebral encephalopathy symptoms

If acquired encephalopathy develops, the following symptoms occur: persistent headache, insomnia, aggressiveness, irritability, dizziness, memory disorder, depressive state. The manifestation of symptoms in this disease can be divided into three stages: compensated, subcompensated and decompressed.The easiest is considered compensated when the symptoms are less pronounced.

Perinatal encephalopathy

Symptoms of congenital encephalopathy appear immediately after birth. Pathology may occur due to genetic defects, abnormalities in the functioning of the brain or injury during childbirth. The disease most often develops as a result of clinical disorders during pregnancy or during childbirth. The following factors can provoke the occurrence of congenital encephalopathy: fetal cord entanglement, oxygen starvation, premature birth and complicated pregnancy, birth trauma. Lead to the development of pathology and disease, transferred by the mother during pregnancy, neuroinfection, or a large mass of the fetus.

Encephalopathy in children, the symptoms of which manifest themselves in the form of the restless behavior of the baby, frequent crying, protrusion of the eyes, requires urgent treatment. If time does not resolve the problem, then there is a risk of serious complications, such as epilepsy or cerebral palsy.

hepatic encephalopathy symptoms treatment

Residual encephalopathy

This type of disease is said if the brain damage did not manifest immediately.This disease can occur as a result of perinatal encephalopathy. The difficulty in detecting pathology is explained by the short-term and minor manifestation of symptoms. Residual encephalopathy may develop as a result of a not immediately detected perinatal form or causes of a different nature (increased pressure, traumatic brain injury, infectious and inflammatory diseases). In the second case, it is customary to speak of acquired encephalopathy, which is divided into subspecies: vascular, dyscirculatory, metabolic, radiation, toxic, post-traumatic. The most common are dyscirculatory atherosclerotic encephalopathy.

Stage of the disease

Encephalopathy is classified into stages depending on the duration and complexity of its course. In the first stage, the symptoms of encephalopathy in adults manifest themselves in the form of cerebrastenic syndromes (dizziness, headache, emotional instability), dystonic vegeto-vascular reactions, psychopathological syndromes (affective, astenoipochondrial, asteno-depressive).This stage is characterized by a hyperdynamic form of cerebrastenia, which is manifested by anxious sleep, mood lability, incontinence, and excitability.

encephalopathy. symptoms treatment

The second stage (subcompensated) is more pronounced in terms of symptoms. In particular, there is an increase in structural organic changes. Headache becomes constant and is accompanied by noise in the head, sleep disorder, depressed mood, fatigue and general pessimistic outlook on life. As a result of diffuse cerebrovascular insufficiency, lesions of the brain structure occur, which are accompanied by a clinical neurological syndrome.

In the third stage (decompressed encephalopathy), the symptoms, the treatment of which is difficult, are pronounced. The brain tissue changes, perivascular lacunae are formed, the density of the white matter is reduced. In addition, the general symptoms worsen and deepen to the development of vascular parkinsonism, cerebellar disorders, circulatory disorders, epileptic seizures.

Hepatic encephalopathy. Symptoms

Treatment of encephalopathy depends on the stage and the variety. Acquired forms of pathology include hepatic encephalopathy, which most often occurs as a result of liver failure. The main reasons that can lead to the development of this complex disease include the following: alcoholic, toxic, viral hepatitis, liver ischemia, poisoning with drugs, poisons, fungi, alcohol, severe bacterial infections in pregnant women. In 10 percent of cases, the cause of the disease cannot be established. Hepatic encephalopathy, symptoms, the treatment of which depends on the period of development, can turn into a patient with endogenous hepatic coma.

encephalopathy in children, symptoms

Hepatic encephalopathy in chronic diseases occurs against the background of portosystemic shunting, bowel disease, infectious diseases, alcoholic excesses, surgical interventions, paracentesis, forced diuresis. One of the important roles in the development of hepatic encephalopathy is assigned to parenchymal (hepatocellular) insufficiency.

Diabetic encephalopathy

Pathology is a lesion of the structures of the central nervous system, which develop on the background of diabetes as a result of metabolic disorders. The reasons that cause the occurrence of the disease are metabolic disorders, diabetic microangiopathy. Elderly patients, those with overweight problems, are at risk. Patients with elevated sugar levels, lipid imbalance, and elevated levels of lipid peroxidation have a predisposition to the occurrence of diabetic encephalopathy.

Diabetic encephalopathy, the symptoms of which are associated with diabetes mellitus, threatens to violate the structures and permeability of the walls of small vessels that affect the functioning of the brain. Typically, this type of encephalopathy occurs after long years of diabetes.

symptoms of encephalopathy in adults

Diagnostics

Brain encephalopathy, the symptoms of which are congenital or acquired, requires additional research to make an accurate diagnosis. The patient should consult a neurologist. To begin, the specialist should conduct anamnesis collection, a comprehensive examination, and reflex testing. Specialized tests are also conducted.

In newborns, encephalopathy, the symptoms of which are not clearly expressed, is difficult to diagnose, which is explained by physiological tone. Therefore, in such cases, conduct neurosonography.

The diagnosis is made to adult patients on the basis of Doppler ultrasound, neck and cerebral vascular rheoencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Also take into account the biochemical and clinical analysis of blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine.

Treatment

Encephalopathy, the symptoms of which are pronounced, is not easily treatable. Its main goal is to combat symptoms. Here it is important to normalize your lifestyle, combine rationally rest with loads, give up bad habits, avoid stressful situations.

perinatal encephalopathy, symptoms

Pathology treatment is carried out with the help of drugs whose action is aimed at improving blood circulation in the brain, preventing the development of seizures, reducing intracranial pressure. Twice a year, it is recommended to undergo metabolic and vasoactive therapy.

Sometimes they conduct psychological conversations that are aimed at normalizing the psycho-emotional state of a person.He is also prescribed a certain diet, walking in the fresh air and moderate exercise. In some cases, the support and advice of a neuropsychiatrist is needed. Severe form is treated with ventilation, parenteral nutrition, hemoperfusion, hemodialysis.

Prevention

To minimize the risk of encephalopathy, you can use a healthy lifestyle. In particular, it is necessary to give up completely the use of drugs, alcohol and nicotine, to observe the regime of rest, to eat healthy food. In order to protect your baby, you need to constantly monitor the doctor during pregnancy and follow his instructions during childbirth.



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