Divergent thinking as the basis of creativity of personality
Thinking is cognitivethe activity of a person, as a result of which a thought or idea arises. It is believed that it is this activity that is the main difference between a man and an animal. Ways of thinking are quite diverse: logical, geometric, illumination, clairvoyance, brainstorming, etc. Its main feature is the ability to obtain certain knowledge about the surrounding world, which can not be obtained through ordinary perception. Thinking is inseparably linked with the activity of the brain. This activity is inherent in every person from birth, but we can say that she "sleeps". Its awakening comes in the course of assimilation of cultural and linguistic norms by man, forms of practical life, in other words, in the process of socialization.
So, thinking arises from the brainhuman activity. Specialists distinguish two of its basic forms: convergent and divergent thinking. Also as the forms of human mental activity are indicated: judgment, inference and concept.
Convergent thinking (analytical)Based on the strategy of using previously learned algorithms for solving a particular problem. In other words, a person receives, in the process of assimilation of social norms, a certain instruction on how to act in the event of a life situation, and follows this instruction throughout his life. At the same time, the person does not discuss why it is necessary to do this, and not otherwise, the process of his thinking is not connected with creativity.
The opposite of the analytical isdivergent thinking (non-standard), based on the search for solutions to specific problems using a creative approach. This form of thinking involves finding a set of solutions to the same problem or problem, and then choosing the optimal one from them. For the first time the concept of "divergent thinking" in psychology was introduced by scientist D. Guilford, who described the divergence as "thinking going in different directions". Guilford also concluded that this form of human brain activity allows varying the main ways to solve a problem, leading to unexpected results and conclusions.
The basis of divergent thinking is imagination. The identification of abilities for creative thinking usually occurs in early childhood. For such purposes, there are special psychological tests, according to which the expert can reveal, the child thinks creatively or finds a solution on the basis of the rules and norms already mastered. As a test, a psychologist can offer the examinee for a limited amount of time to find as many possible ways of using such materials as cardboard, wood, paper, etc.
The main methods of divergent thinkingare: drawing up a connection diagram and a method of brainstorming. The first consists in depicting the thinking process in the form of a specific scheme, in which individual words, tasks and ideas are presented, connected by branches or arrows that branch off from the central concept. The basis of this technique is the multiplicity of associations, proving the inexhaustibility of the possibilities of the human brain. The method of brainstorming consists in the operative solution of a concrete task on the basis of stimulating the creative activity of all participants involved in the process of its discussion and finding a solution. Each participant has to express as many options as possible to solve the task. Further, from the total number of decisions, the most acceptable ones are selected in a particular situation.
To develop divergent thinking follows from the earlychildhood. In this child, various coloring books, puzzles and riddles help. Of course, not everyone is born a creative person to the full extent of this word, but to achieve a creative approach to the matter, the use of creativity in the work of any person. Children with the creative approach of the mind, as a rule, are more successful in their studies, they are easier to learn new material, write essays. It is known that children fantasize a lot, but over time fantasies are forgotten, giving way to the harsh reality. Having a creative approach to everything at an older age, one should be careful not to move that shaky line between fantasy and insanity. Creativity, of course, is welcome, but everything needs its own measure.