Differing nouns. Examples
Most Russian languages belong to one of the three main types of declension. Only a small part of them belongs to a special group and is called non-divergent nouns.
Algorithm for determining the type of declension
Every student already in elementary school knows how to know the type of declension of a noun. To do this, you must use the algorithm, making a series of sequential actions.
Firstly, the gender of the noun is determined. Secondly, attention is drawn to the ending of the word and its basis. And the last thing that needs to be done is to recall the table, where the declension of the noun, the signs of its belonging to a particular group are described in detail.
Table of the main types of declension of nouns
In modern Russian, to determine the main types of declension of a noun, use the instruction below.
|Declination type||Genus of the noun||Ending of the word||Examples|
|I declension||Masculine gender||-and I||young man, uncle, servant|
|Feminine||-and I||land, wife|
|Declination II||Neuter gender||-o, -e||field, village|
|Masculine gender||Zero ending||law horse|
The basis of the word ends with a soft sign
|spruce, joy, mouse|
As you can see, there is no graph in the table where the so-called ravnosnonyemye nouns are described. This is not an accident, since the words have features that do not allow them to be included in any of the listed categories.
From the history of the language. The reasons for the emergence of a special group of words
The current system of declension of nouns did not always look exactly the way it is used to see today. In the old Russian language, it also existed, but the words were divided not into three, but into six groups. The main criterion by which the type of declension was determined was the basis of the word. The sound with which it ended was taken into account. The system was considered confusing imperfect, so they decided to "break" and create a new one.
After this work, words came to light that, by the new criteria, did not fit into any of the three types of declension. It was also decided to single them out into a special group called the declining nouns.
List of exception words. How to remember?
No need to think about the fact that words belong to a special group - they are so often used in speech. This includes ten nouns for-meflame, banner, udder, crown, stirrup, tribe, burden, name, time, seed. In addition, the same group includes the nounway and child.
Only after a little research it becomes clear that the words really do not correspond to any type of declension. For example, divergent nounsbanner, tribe, timeand the other seven nouns ending in -me are of the middle gender and could belong to the second type of declension. But among the words referring to the second type of declension, the ending i, which is observed in each of the words-exceptions, is not provided. In addition, when these nouns change in terms of cases, the forms of the third and second declensions are found. The revealed facts give the full right to classify these nouns as opposable.
Two other words have similar inconsistencies - this ischild and the way. The ending in the nominative form of the singular of the last of them indicates that it belongs to the second declension. Forms of some oblique cases allow to rank the word to the third.The conclusion suggests itself - the noun belongs to a special category of words.
In the Russian language learning program, nouns that are opposed to different names are studied as a separate topic due to its complexity. For their proper use in speech and writing, you need to know about the existence of a category of such words, as well as remember the rules for changing cases.
School teachers to achieve the best results when studying a topic, use all sorts of memos, tables, charts, entertaining texts, rhymes in their work. All efforts can be justified by the fact that the material is necessarily included in the tests that check the level of language acquisition by high school graduates during the exam and GIA.