Degrees of comparison of adverbs in Russian
As once said the great German philosopherFriedrich Nietzsche, "everything is known in comparison." And indeed, mankind has a huge range of goods and services. People compete with each other, choose their friends and partners for family life. Thus mentally, we constantly compare something with each other. And to express it verbally and in writing, we use those independent parts of speech that denote the signs of objects, other signs or actions. For this, there are degrees of comparison of adverbs and adjectives, the rules of formation of which we will consider in this article.
Adverb is an independent part of speech thatcan indicate the sign of the action (run as? -fastly, read as? -see carefully), a sign of the sign (illuminated as? - bright, strong as far as? - very), and in rare cases, combined with a number of certain nouns, still a child, reading out loud). In sentences, they are often located next to verbs, adjectives and other adverbs, playing the role of circumstances, and if referring to a noun, then definitions. The degrees of comparison of adverbs express the difference or ratio of several actions or several characteristics, highlighting one of two or one of all. And because of the rules of education and application in the sentence, they are very similar to adjectives, then remembering them will not be difficult.
What words can I use?
Degrees of comparison of adverbs can be formed onlyfrom those representatives of this part of the speech, which simultaneously refer to qualitative and determinative, that is, they express the quality of a feature or action. For example: to go fast, to fight bravely, to love gently, a brightly shining lantern. To quickly understand this, you can remember a simple technique: the degree of comparison is formed only from those adverbs that can be conditionally turned into adjectives. Fast, fast, courageous, courageous, gentle, gentle, brightly bright, etc. With the remaining adverbs of time (always late), places (far, ahead), causes (involuntarily, hot), goals (in mockery, purposely ), measures and degrees (many, slightly), the mode of action (on foot, from under the brow) to act so clearly impossible. This is because only qualitative adverbs were formed from a similar category of adjectives by deleting the ending and adding the suffix "-o".
Hence the danger ofdefinition of a part of speech. Namely, short forms of adjectives are easily confused with qualitative adverbs. For example, take two simple sentences: "She jokes funny" and "Yes, it's funny." In the first case the adverb is meant, since it refers to the verb (predicate), signifies the sign of this action, hence, answers the question "how?" And is circumstance. In the second sentence, the word "high" is a short form of the adjective, depends on the pronoun (subject), expresses the property of the object, answers the question "what is it?" And is emphasized as a predicate. Therefore, in order to distinguish between these two parts of speech in the sentence, it is necessary to make the above analysis of the problem word, and then everything will become clear.
How to form a comparative form of adverbs
There is another possibility of mistakenconfusion. The problem is that the comparative form of the degree of comparison of adverbs is formed in exactly the same way as in adjectives, that is, by adding the suffixes "-e, -e, -e, -he, -je" to the root, sometimes they are truncated or the last letters are replaced, and in some cases the whole word is modified. For example, "far - further, closer - closer, beautiful - more beautiful / beautiful / beautiful, good - better, smaller - less". So there is a formation of a simple (synthetic) form of the degree of comparison of adverbs, the table will include it at the bottom of the first column, and it is identical to the adjectives in the text. Again, for example, take two sentences: "He jumped higher" and "This boy is taller." It also requires parsing: in the first case this is an adverb, refers to a predicate, signifies an action, answers the question "how?", And in the second example an adjective. Another form of the degree of comparison (composite / analytical) in these parts of speech differs, although it is formed in the same way, by adding the auxiliary word "more" or "less". For example, "higher" and "less close" in adjectives, "higher" and "less closely" in adverbs.
How to form an excellent shape
Adverbs in a comparative degree express that forof this action / characteristic, the word being designated is more characteristic than for the other. In addition, there is another form called "excellent". It distinguishes this action / attribute from all, expressing it in the highest degree of comparison of adverbs, and is formed by adding the auxiliary word "all" (compound) or suffixes "-ishe, -aisha" (simple). The latter is typical only for certain words, mostly obsolete (humbly, nizhayshe), and therefore almost not indicated in the reference books on the Russian language. But it uses a composite form of the degree of comparison of adverbs. Exercises and examples with it you can come up with any words: jump above all, be lower than everyone, go further than everyone, perform better than everyone, etc.