Cybernetics as a Scientific Discipline
Cybernetics- the science of control processes in dynamic systems, which is based on the theoretical basis of logic, mathematics and the widespread use of computer technology for this purpose.
Andre Marie Amperabout two hundred years ago completed the work under thethe title "Essays on the Philosophy of Sciences." In this work, the French mathematician and physicist sought to bring all existing scientific knowledge into the system. In a separate section, the scientist placed science, which, according to his assumption, was supposed to study the ways of managing society. The name of this science, he formed from the Greek word "cybernetus", meaning "helmsman", "helmsman".
Science cyberneticswas placed by Amper in the section "Politics". For a long time, the term was not used at all, essentially forgetting about it.
Only in 1948Norbert Wiener, an American mathematician, published the work Cybernetics, or Control and Communication in Living Organisms and Machines. The book aroused keen interest of the public.
The cornerstones of cyberneticsThe theory of information, the theory of automata, andthe theory of algorithms that studied how to build systems designed to process information. The mathematical apparatus of the science of cybernetics is very wide. It includes the theory of probability, the theory of functions, mathematical logic and other branches of mathematics.
In the development of scientific approaches to cybernetics, a largerole played biology, which studies the management processes inherent in living nature. Decisive in the development of cybernetics was the growth of automation and electronics, which led to the emergence of computers with high speed. This opened up unprecedented opportunities for processing information and modeling control systems.
The services of the new science began to be used by physics, mathematics, biology, psychiatry, physiology, economics, philosophy, engineering of various directions.
Because thecybernetics studiesmanagement processes, these sciences have soughtTo develop management processes in the spheres of their own interests. As a result, the most careful attention was drawn to the living organism - the man himself, who was a super-type control system, whose functions scientists and engineers sought to reproduce with the help of automata.
Cybernetics exploresgeneral properties of various control systems that are inherent in living nature, the organic world, and the collective of people.
Control object(machine, automated line, living cell, character set) and a control device (brain or machine) constantly exchange information.
Management is associated with the transfer, storage, accumulation, processing of data, information that characterizes the object, external conditions, the course of processes, the work program.
Different systems differ from each other in natureinformation carriers (light, sound, chemical, mechanical, electrical signals, documents). But in any case, these processes obey the general laws. All of them are characterized by the presence of feedback. Also, all control devices include elements and functions that share similar characteristics to living organisms and artificial machines. They are capable of perceiving information, accumulating it, remembering it, etc.
Cybernetics developed extremely rapidly. In about a quarter of a century, it has become one of the leading disciplines, which has received scientific recognition and universal significance.
Today cybernetics- a full science of the principles of governance inseparate spheres of science and society life (economic, technical, nuclear cybernetics, etc.) Cybernetics develops concepts and builds management models.
Cybernetic is called this type of management,which views the organization as a system whose elements are interrelated; provides the optimal solution of dynamic tasks; uses specific methods of cybernetics (feedback, self-organization, etc.); applies automation and mechanization of management work on the basis of control and computer technology and computers.