Crimean National Park: name, description, photo
Few kinds of recreation or leisure activities canto compete with being in the lap of nature? Who will refuse the pleasure to feel the spirit of complete freedom, to breathe clean air, saturated with the aromas of herbs and foliage?
Depriving yourself of the opportunity to contactnature is a payment for the benefits provided by scientific and technological progress. From year to year there are fewer and fewer places that would preserve their original appearance. The affected issue prompted the birth of eco-tourism, in charge of which is assistance in organizing cultural recreation. Without attention, you can not leave reserves and the national park of the Crimea.
Crimean nature reserve: creation
Almost a hundred years have passed from the day of educationnatural Crimean reserve. It was in the pre-revolutionary year 1913 that the tsarist government made a decision to create the "Reserve of Imperial Hunting". At the same time, such rare artiodactyls as the bison, the Dagestani tour, the Corsican moufflon, the bezoar goat, the Caucasian deer appeared on its territory.
Another 10 years have passed. The passions connected with revolutionary events have died down a little, civil war has died down. The Council of People's Commissars of the young Soviet state issued a special Decree on the transformation of the former royal reserve into a reserve. Initially, its territory had an area of 16 thousand hectares, but by the end of 1923 increased by 7 thousand hectares. Reserves and national parks of the Crimea are increasingly attracting tourists who are supporters of eco-tourism.
In the late 1950s the reserve changed itsstatus, with the easy hand of Khrushchev it becomes the Crimean state reserve-hunting farm, where only high-ranking officials could be. Only 1991 the government of the Ukrainian SSR signed a decree, thanks to which the territory again turned into a state reserve. It is located in the center of a group of mountain ranges under the general name of the Main Crimean ridge. At the moment, the national park of Crimea occupies almost 33.4 thousand hectares.
Climate and flora of the reserve
Climatic conditions of the Crimean reservecan not be called stable. An enormous influence on this factor is exerted by the mountain slope and altitude zonality. For example, in the uppermost zone, negative temperatures during the year can be held for up to four months. In the highlands atmospheric precipitation falls in large quantities (more than 1000 millimeters per year), thanks to which the sources of many rivers of the Crimea appeared in the center of the reserve, among them Tavelchuk, Alma, Kacha and others. In the mountains of the Crimean reserve there are almost three hundred keys. Many of them are healing, especially the famous spring of Savlukh-Su - its water is saturated with silver ions.
Flora of the territory under protectionstate, is quite diverse, the number of species exceeds 1200. Separately from each other, forests grow, where one of the listed species prevails:
- pine Crimean and Scots pine;
It is impossible to overestimate the significance of the forests of this protected area in terms of protecting the soil and conserving water resources. Not all locals know which national parks are in the Crimea.
Who lives in the main reserve of the Crimea?
Animals of the vertebrate class are represented morethan two hundred species. The noble deer or moufflon, which springs from the Crimean roe, should not cause surprise. Feel free to feel black vultures, whiteheads and owls, of which there are several species. The state has protected fifty-two species of animals, and thirty are listed in the Red Book of Europe. Among them are:
- stork is black;
- the crane is gray;
- scorpion Crimean;
- starling pink, etc.
The rivers of the protected area can not boast ofa large number of species of freshwater inhabitants. But among them there are such rare fish as Crimean barbel and trout brook. There are not many corners of the planet where you can meet a freshwater crab. Nature reserves and national parks of Crimea are a natural property of the whole people, therefore people should take care of such magnificent places.
Here specially for tourists in due time have createdecological trails and recreational areas. Everyone who wants to get acquainted with the rich nature of the Crimea, is given a unique opportunity to see it with his own eyes.
Yalta mountain forest nature reserve
The starting point of the reserve is 14 thousand square meters. 176 hectares is considered 1973 year. What reserves national parks are in the Crimea, excites many holidaymakers. In Soviet times, this territory was the main health resort, so people are wondering whether there are forest tracts and ecologically clean corners today.
On the slopes of the mountains of this reserve growtrees with rather high trunks - the Crimean and ordinary pine. The thickets of oak and beech are sometimes replaced by the undergrowth, which consists of evergreen representatives of the Mediterranean. And this is not surprising, because the climate at the foot is the same as in the Mediterranean resorts. The higher the slope, the more noticeable the contrast.
Protected plants of the reserve
The number of species of plants that need protection from the state equals 78. Here are some of them:
- adenophore Crimean;
- adianum (or venene hair);
- strawberry small-fruited;
- juniper tall;
- cedar crimson;
- Crimean peony;
- violet is a violet;
- a Bieberstein ghost and others.
There are also such species that have spread only within the reserved territory (the scientific term is "endemic species"), for example:
- cloves are low;
- geraniums of the Crimea;
- Dubrovnik Yailinsky;
- Crimean peony, etc.
Such national parks of Crimea should be under special protection. A list of park zone names can be found in this article.
Nature of the reserve
In a rare grass creeping or basking on the stonesreptiles: Crimean lizard, Crimean gecko, skull, yellow-belted (legless lizard), medynka (from the family of the former). Under the reliable protection of the state there are animals from the genus of bats: blades, night-stole, horseshoe and vespers.
The pride of the Yalta Reserve can be considered Ai-Petri, the Wuchang-Su waterfall (only 8 km from Yalta), the Three-Eagle Cave on Ai-Petri, the Devil's Ladder Pass (or in the Turkic version of Shaitan-Merdven).
Employees of the Yalta Reserve pay particular attention togive public education in environmental matters. This goal is served by ecological trails and routes for everyone who wants to get more information about local attractions. The national parks of the Crimea are getting more and more popular. The names of these places were approved back in the days of the USSR. It is important to take care of these places carefully, so that our ancestors too can appreciate the natural beauty of Russia.
Azov-Sivash National Nature Park
This park appeared almost twenty years ago - in1993. Prior to this, there was the Azov-Sivash Reserve. Although the natural park is considered Crimean, however some part is within the Kherson region. In other words, it occupies the western coast of the Azov Sea with an area of 57,400 hectares.
The lion's share of the park is ona marine spit called Biryuchy Island and the rest of the small islands located nearby. Nearly fifty species of fauna species that inhabit the Azov-Sivash national park have been included in the Red Book. Of course, the main national park of Crimea can not be compared with this territory.
Cape Martyan Nature Reserve
If you drive a little eastthe famous Nikitsky Botanical Garden, then the Cape Martian reserve will be on the way. The entire area of its territory, including the Black Sea water area, is 240 hectares. The status of the reserve was appropriated to him in 1973, although the state took it back as far back as 1947.
The reserve's business card is a relic forest,where not less than five hundred species of vegetation grow, mostly belonging to the Mediterranean type. The name "Strawberry tree red" (or "Strawberry small-fruited") can be found in the International Red Book. It is the rarest representative of broad-leaved evergreen trees, which are found mainly in the eastern part of the European continent. This is also a national park of the Crimea, therefore, to the inhabitants and plants of this area are treated in a special way.
Reserve "Lebyazhyi Ostrov"
In the Karkinitsky Bay - parts of the Black Sea,bordered by the north-western Crimean coastline - there are Lebyazhy Islands and a reserve with the same name. Its total area is 9612 hectares.
The reserve is part of the trajectory along whichThe birds fly from Europe to the south (to Asia, Africa). The islands were chosen cormorants, flamingos, silver gulls, herons, etc. for the construction of their nests. Altogether there are up to 265 species of birds.
Everyone should visit the national parks of the Crimea, a list of which is presented in this article. These places delight and amaze with its naturalness.