Congenital heart disease in children. Congenital and acquired heart defects
Heart disease is a system of deviations and deformations of the valves, openings between the heart chambers that violate the blood circulation in the body. All this leads to insufficient hemodynamics, as well as the development of heart failure. This ailment is of both congenital and acquired origin. Today we will find out what its manifestations are, and also we will determine with the help of what methods this sickness can be overcome.
Congenital heart defects: classification of defects
In practical cardiology, this disease is divided into 2 types:
1. Inherited heart disease in children of the "blue" type. Such defects of the heart are characterized by the merger of venous and arterial blood and include two groups:
- with the impoverishment of the blood circulation of the small circle (Fallot's tetrad, Ebstein's anomaly, etc.);
- with the enrichment of hemodynamics (Eisenmenger complex, etc.).
2Congenital heart disease in children of the "white" type. In this case, arterial and venous blood is not mixed with arteriovenous discharge. This type of disease is divided into 4 groups:
- with the impoverishment of the blood circulation of the small circle (pulmonary stenosis isolated);
- with its enrichment (damage to the atrial septum, interventricular wall);
- with the impoverishment of hemodynamics of a large circle (aortic heart disease, arctic arteries);
- without circulatory disorders (disposition and dystopia of the heart).
Congenital heart disease in children can be caused by several factors in the prenatal period. The formation of this human engine occurs before the eighth week of pregnancy, and it is then that deviations develop. They can be both hereditary and occur under the influence of negative phenomena.
The risk of having a baby with such a diagnosis includes women:
- with miscarriages and births of dead babies;
- over 35 years old;
- who smoked or drank alcohol during pregnancy;
- in families whose disease is marked as hereditary;
- living in poor environmental conditions;
- those who have had an infectious disease while in an interesting position (influenza, herpes, rubella, toxoplasmosis);
- used in the period of carrying a baby some prohibited means, for example, antibiotics, aspirin and others;
- People with chronic illnesses such as diabetes, thyroid disease, adrenal tumors;
- working before pregnancy and during it in working conditions, resulting in contact with harmful substances or radiation.
Congenital heart defects, the causes of which are described above, can be identified with the help of special tests, it is about them that will be discussed further.
Symptoms of the disease in newborns
Immediately it is necessary to emphasize that it is difficult for parents to detect this ailment, therefore only an experienced cardiologist is able to detect the disease in a child. And, by the way, the sooner a mom or dad will ask for help, the easier it will be to treat their child. However, some symptoms parents can still observe, and this:
- the crumbs have increased heart rate;
- there is a blueness of the skin;
- The child is sluggish, sucks poorly, quickly gets tired;
- when feeding such a baby, he sweats heavily;
- the child does not gain weight;
- The baby often regurgitates.
Signs of illness in older children
Symptoms of congenital heart disease in children after a year, in addition to the above, can be observed the following:
- the presence of shortness of breath;
- sudden fainting;
- the child prefers a low-active rhythm, he has no particular desire to move, unlike a healthy baby.
If you have observed such symptoms in your crumb, then you should not wait, but you need to quickly go to a cardiologist, who, after detailed examination, will prescribe further treatment. Aortic heart disease in babies is treated with surgery, however, methods of conservative therapy are also practiced.
To understand whether a child is sick or not, it is necessary to conduct several types of research.
Diagnosis of congenital heart disease involves the passage of such activities as:
- Electrocardiography. With this method you can find out how the heart works, see its structure, whether there are defects on its walls.
- Ultrasound of the heart of the child, which is also a mandatory method of research.
- Fetal echocardiography. This method is used when the crumb is still inside the mother. This method of research is considered dangerous for both the baby and the pregnant woman.
- Heart catheterization. This is another testing method in which certain contrast agents are injected into the bloodstream using a special catheter. After that, X-rays are taken. This method helps the doctor to assess the general condition of the body, to determine the pressure in the cells. Based on this survey, we can talk about the various pathologies of this engine of the body.
- Pulse oximetry. With the help of it, it is possible to reveal how much the blood is saturated with oxygen, thanks to a special sensor that is attached to the fingertip of the child.
- X-ray. This diagnostic method should detect cardiac expansion or the presence of excess fluid in the lungs.
How is heart ultrasound done for children?
This method of research is carried out in the same way as pregnant women during the inspection of the fetus. During an ultrasound of the heart, the child is smeared on the chest with a special gel, and then the specialist slowly begins to drive through the intended area with a sensor. If the crumb is spinning, it does not affect the results of the procedure. The whole event takes no more than 15 minutes, after which it is necessary that the result be deciphered by a qualified specialist.That is, after the procedure, you need to contact a cardiologist. Parents should not be afraid of examining the heart in children, as this is not X-ray, where ionizing radiation is used. Ultrasound is the use of mechanical vibration waves. Therefore, it is better to do such a study in cases of suspected congenital heart disease in newborns and to be calm than to be in the dark about the condition of this organ of the crumbs.
In the treatment of such a disease there can be two ways - surgical and therapeutic, and this applies to both congenital and acquired heart defects.
The main direction of treatment for all forms is the fight against manifestations of heart failure. The patient may be prescribed anti-inflammatory therapy with non-hormonal drugs. When a vascular lesion is used drugs that improve microcirculation.
Congenital heart disease, which is not prescribed by a doctor in a therapeutic way, is surgically treated. Indications for this method of therapy are:
- the occurrence of dyspnea during sports;
- increase in pressure in the right and left ventricle;
- an increase in symptoms of hypertrophy and overload of the heart.
Surgical intervention is best performed in children aged 5–7 years, and according to emergency indications in any years. Early surgery is an effective way to save a sick child. It also happens that the procedure is carried out in several stages: first, the patient's condition is facilitated, and then prepared for intervention to completely eliminate the disease called "congenital heart disease in newborns."
The operation can be both open and closed. During the latter, the heart is not affected, the procedure is performed on the large blood vessels around it. When open, the organ cavity is opened. During the operation, the heart and lungs are disconnected from the circulation. And the blood is enriched with oxygen and passes through the body of the baby with the help of a special apparatus.
After the operation, the child needs special care: diet and diet, constant walks on the street, temporary refusal from physical education.
All existing diseases must be treated before the pregnancy occurs.
Congenital heart disease in children may not be observed if parents take up the mind, give up all bad habits, at least six months before conception. It is necessary to maintain a healthy lifestyle and eat fully. It is also important not to self-medicate the diseases that have arisen, but to contact a specialist, since many drugs during the period of carrying a child are strictly forbidden to take to future mothers.
The resulting disease
Acquired heart disease - the disease, accompanied by a disorder of the location and function of the valve apparatus. This type of disease develops as a result of acute or prolonged diseases and injuries that violate the functions of the heart.
The reasons for the development of acquired heart disease in children most often is:
- Rheumatic endocarditis due to rheumatism.
- Diseases of the connective tissue.
- Damage to the chest.
Diagnosis of this type of disease occurs in the same way as for congenital heart disease.
Acquired Defect Treatment
People with such a diagnosis do not need special treatment, since the disease remains compensated, that is, the body is able to compensate for the losses caused by circulatory disorders.
Drug treatment is prescribed by a doctor only with the aim of normalizing the heart rate, preventing its insufficiency, various complications and relapses.
The surgical method for this form of the disease is applied remarkably; in this case, such therapy methods are considered as:
- valvulotomy - separation of accrete valve valves;
- valvuloplasty - the resumption of the valve by dissecting its walls and further stitching new valves;
- Replacement with an artificial valve.
Prevention of acquired heart disease
So that this disease does not overtake the person again, it is necessary to adhere to the basic rule: to prevent the recurrence of the disease, which is the cause of the defect (for example, timely treatment of angina, rheumatism). In addition, an active lifestyle, excessive physical and mental stress such person is contraindicated. It is necessary to exclude the practice of heavy sports, but light morning exercises or, for example, walking, cycling, rollerblading, swimming - this is all permissible, and it will positively affect your health.
Congenital and acquired heart defects, treatment with folk remedies
We first clarify that neither therapeutic treatment nor the use of home methods can eliminate the cause of the disease, so they can only be used as ancillary and supportive measures. In any case, even in these cases, they should be prescribed by the doctor.
The following recipes can have a beneficial effect on heart function:
- Infusion of lily of the valley flowers. Forty grams of a dry plant should be filled with boiling water (250 ml), let it stand under the lid for an hour. Then filter and give the child every 2 hours 1 tablespoon;
- Infusion of motherwort. A tablespoon of the plant should be poured 250 ml of boiling water, insist, strain and take up to 5 times a day, 20 ml;
- Garlic with honey. The plant needs to be crushed on a grater, combine it with “sweet amber” in equal quantities and determine in a dark place for 7 days. Then you can give your baby 1 dessert spoon three times a day, half an hour before meals.
Now you know what constitutes a congenital heart disease in children, what are its symptoms in children, methods of its diagnosis, and also treatment.We found out that there is also an acquired disease that occurs as a result of other ailments that have overtaken a person. And the sooner the parents turn to the doctor, and the latter will detect a heart disease, the easier it will be to treat the child, and most importantly, you can avoid serious consequences for him.