Complete transformer substation KTP: production, installation
Complete transformer substationsare used both in industrial enterprises and in municipal networks of settlements. Their main advantage is reliability in work and relative cheapness. Stand KTP in two, and sometimes three times cheaper than conventional transformer stations. This electrical equipment is manufactured using a special technology with exact observance of the standards stipulated in GOSTs. Therefore, if necessary, a substation can be selected absolutely for any line.
Types of package transformer substations
In place of installation complete transformerthe substations are classified by the KTP and KTPN itself. Blocks of the first variety are installed indoors. Such substations are usually used in production. KTPN are more often used in utility networks. The dimensions of the substation of both types can vary. Under the big installations the foundation is arranged.
The substation KTP can have different power and purpose. On this basis, such equipment is divided into the following categories:
KTP with transformers with power from 25 to 400 kW. Such stations are installed from the outside.
KTP for industrial enterprises. This option is completed with transformers having a power from 160 to 250 kW.
КТП of special purpose. Such designs can be used in mines, on construction sites, in quarries, etc. Their design includes such an element as a carriage for movement.
By the method of assembling a station of this typeare subdivided into mast, ground and built-in. The first variety is installed on vertical supports. Ground stations can be assembled in metal, concrete or sandwich bodies.
Plants for the production of package transformer substations
Manufacture of substations KTP is made at the enterprises in which structure enter:
Low and medium voltage shop. There is a site for tire processing, electrical installation, commissioning and testing.
Basic components of the design of the KTP
The KTP substation is assembled in production using the following basic elements:
high-voltage input devices;
oil or dry power transformer;
distribution cabinet for the removal of voltage.
The substation's housing, depending on the purpose and performance group, can be made of metal, concrete or sandwich blocks.
Modern transformer substations KTP: production
The manufacture of this type of equipment includesyourself a few basic stages. The assembly of the most popular KTP in a steel casing begins in the metalworking shop. The highest quality material is used for their manufacture. The body parts are usually made on special machines by the method of bending and stamping. The blanks obtained in this way are first treated with special anticorrosive compounds. Then they are stained. Powder means are usually used. Such dyes are the most resistant to negative environmental factors.
The manufacture of KTP substations continues inassembly shop. Here by the riveting method all the blanks are connected to the finished case. Finally, all the elements of the latter are mounted in the shop of medium and low voltage. Here, elements of the bus system are manufactured in the area of the tire-working according to a special technology. Then all necessary communication equipment is installed in the case. This operation is performed at the wiring site. Then, all automation and relay protection are assembled.
At the final stage, a ready-made station arrives at the commissioning site. Here it is checked for efficiency and compliance with the GOST standards.
Production of stations in a concrete shell
Complete transformer substations KTP of thistype are manufactured using a different technology. In this case, the first stage uses special molding plants. They are necessary for pouring the concrete shell of the substation. In the manufacture of the latter, wireframe equipment of the appropriate design is used. The frozen concrete block with technological holes is treated with special means that increase its resistance to unfavorable environmental factors. The cable floor of the resulting housing is waterproofed.
Electrical equipment inside the unit is installedin the same shop. It comes from low and medium voltage. After its installation, as in the first case, tests and adjustment of equipment are made.
Installation of package transformer substations
Installation of stations of this type is usually performedspecialists of the same enterprise where they were manufactured. The area before the installation is carefully prepared. Further, a marking is made for the foundation of the station - the foundation or supporting channels. A small substation KTP can be delivered to the installation site already assembled. Large equipment of this type is brought in parts - blocks. They are already assembled on site.
After the construction of the foundation,to the station installation. Cabinets are raised using a truck crane. In the absence of such a technique, special rollers made of thick steel pipes are used. To lift the switchgears use inverter slings, fixed at the ends of the support channels.
After the KTP substation has been installedon the base, start to connect the electrical equipment. This stage consists of such operations as the connection of the transformer terminals to the switchgear, the assembly of air and cable lines, and so on.
After the completion of these works without failthe reliability of all bolted connections is checked, the mechanical interlocks, devices and instruments are in good repair. Insulation is also carefully inspected to identify possible damage.
Installation of complete transformer substations of KTP from several units
In this case, the installation is done approximatelyby the same method. However, when building a package transformer substation consisting of several main parts, among other things, the order of assembling the blocks should be observed. First set the last one. Next, the blocks are mounted alternately. Before lifting from each of them, remove the plugs covering the outgoing ends of the tires. After installation of the bus blocks, the grounding systems are welded to the support channels.
Network Connection Features
The KTP substation can have a power schemeradial or mainline. In the first case, when connected on the principle of a block-line-transformer, it is allowed to use a blind connection with the TM. If the power scheme at the station is a backbone, the UVN cabinet is pre-installed. When the power of the transformers is 1000-1200 kW, 2-3 QPSs are usually connected to one main line. If this indicator is less, 3-4 stations are used.
Rules to be observed
The installation of the substation KTP must be performed with the obligatory observance of the following standards:
The station can be installed at a height of no more than 1000 m above sea level.
The ambient air temperature must comply with the regulations for this particular model. This parameter is specified in the instruction (usually from -40 to +40 degrees).
In the immediate vicinity of the station there should be no explosive or chemically active substances.
The installed equipment must not be subjected to shaking, shock or vibration.
Features of operation
The main equipment requiring periodicservice in the substation, is the equipment of switchboards and actually the power transformer itself. When operating a package transformer substation, the following standards should be observed:
The load current must not exceed the values specified in the instruction. In a station with two transformers, for example, it should not be above 80% of the nominal.
Periodic monitoring of the normal circulation of oil through the filter is necessary. The check is carried out according to the degree of heating of the upper part of the casing.
Oxide film and sludge from the contact system should be removed at least once a year.
If during manufacture, installation and maintenancesubstation to observe all technical conditions, it will continue to work smoothly and for a long time. Otherwise, the management company or the manufacturing enterprise will necessarily have various problems. Therefore, to choose the manufacturer of KTP should be carefully, focusing primarily on the reputation of companies offering such services.