Colon cancer is a malignant tumor that grows from the mucous membrane that lines the intestinal wall. Primary localization is sigmoid, blind, rectum.
The appearance of colon cancercontributes to the wrong nature of nutrition (excessive consumption of fatty, meaty, flour dishes, insufficient content of plant products), constipation. Also, the appearance of tumors is promoted by diseases: polyps, colitis. The role of heredity in the appearance of tumors of the large intestine is proved.
There are a sufficient number of signs that characterize colon cancer. 4 stages of the disease occur for a long time, usually a tumor leads to death in old age.
The early stages of the disease proceed practicallyis asymptomatic. With a thorough questioning of patients, deterioration in overall well-being, a decrease in the ability to work, and a decrease in appetite are noted. Tumor process does not lead to weight loss, but on the contrary, patients can gain weight.
At the next stage, there are signs of intestinaldisorders: transfusion and rumbling in the intestines, constipation, diarrhea, intermittent or persistent pain that is not associated with eating habits. With the growth of the tumor narrowing the lumen of the intestine, which leads to uneven unilateral bloating. Slow chronic hemorrhage, which accompanies the right color of the colon, leads to the development of anemia.
The last stages of the tumor processcharacterized by an increase in clinical signs. There may occur intestinal obstruction, inflammatory complications (peritonitis, phlegmon, abscess), bleeding. In severe cases, there is a perforation of the intestine, which leads to the development of paraproctitis, peritonitis, and the formation of fistulas (intestinal-vaginal, intestinal-urinary).
Colon cancer needs timelydiagnostics. Examination of the patient does not allow to reveal pathological changes. The most accurate is the radiography, which is carried out with the help of contrast agents (barium suspension). If there is a filling defect or areas of constriction, the development of the tumor process is confirmed.
To identify the cancer of the distal divisions, thesigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy. In this case, a visual examination of the intestinal mucosa occurs. Only in this way can cancer of the small intestine be excluded, which can have symptoms similar to that of the large intestine.
If a blood test is found in the analysis, the diagnosis is also made. To confirm it, the content of the carcinoembryonic antigen is determined in the blood test.
Colon cancer is treated with radicalmethods. Depending on the localization of the tumor process, there are several variants of surgical operations. Cancer of the cecum, hepatic flexure, ascending department requires removal of the entire right half of it. After the operation an anastomosis is created between the transversal and ileum.
After the operation, a medicationTherapy, aimed at combating intoxication, dehydration, shock. Vaseline oil is also prescribed, which has a laxative effect. This is necessary to avoid traumatization of the suture joints. On the second day, drinking is allowed, followed by a light liquid food, the transition to a normal diet is gradually carried out.
Colon cancer in neglected forms requirespalliative operations. These include the application of anastomoses in circumvention of the tumor, feces that serve to prevent the development of intestinal obstruction. The complement to the operations is chemotherapy.
The prognosis for this disease depends on the stage of development of the tumor, in the absence of metastases it is relatively favorable.