Classification of markets and their laws
The market is a set of alltransactions, acts of purchase and sale of services and products. The processes carried out on it take place in accordance with the laws of circulation and commodity production. The market is a mechanism, the main components of which are sellers and buyers.
Classification of markets occurs according to several parameters. Let's consider the main ones.
1. On the basis of:
- measures of state regulation;
- degree of monopolization;
- the degree of scale of commodity exchange processes;
- types of services and products sold;
- territorial affiliation.
2. Classification of markets by type of competition:
- highly competitive;
- pure monopoly;
- monopolistic competition.
3. By type of goods sold:
- articles of consumption and services;
- real estate, buildings, residential areas;
- means of production and land;
- money, securities;
- jobs, work;
- a spiritual and intellectual product.
4. Classification of markets by territorial basis:
5. According to the functional sign:
- unorganized market;
6. Classification of markets by goods:
- scarce or ineffective;
- Imported or national.
7. In the modern market economy, it became urgent to subdivide markets according to the principle of legality:
- legal (official);
- illegal (shadow);
- the black.
8. The objects of exchange are:
- markets for production factors;
- markets for services and goods.
9. By degree of saturation:
- equilibrium markets - supply and demand are at about the same level;
- scarce - people are ready to buy a larger volume of goods than suppliers give for sale.
- Excess - the goods are presented in large quantities in the markets, but buyers can not buy them under the influence of various factors.
In the modern economy, certain market laws have been formed. Let's consider the basic.
1. The law of probability. The price is not a constant value, in a certain period of time it will begin to grow or fall.
2. The law of the case. None of the sellers know what will happen next. Therefore, you should always be ready for surprise, and adjust your calculations taking into account possible accidents.
3. The law of meanness. The conditions on the market are constantly changing. And even when you are sure of the transaction and have received an absolute guarantee, do not forget about possible changes in the rules of the "game". Be prepared for any surprises and secure yourself.
4. The law of optimism. Many people tend to exaggerate their opportunities and chances when it is necessary to soberly assess the situation. Do not enter into transactions at the first prices offered to you. If you buy products, then try to reduce the cost of the lot. Find with the seller beneficial for both conditions of the transaction.
5. The law of time. The wording is roughly the following: the longer you are outside the market, the greater your desire to make a deal. In this case, getting on the market, you are ready to conclude contracts on any terms. Be patient, consider all possible options for cooperation with partners.
6. Law of cause-effect. Any movement is associated with some specific desires of market participants. You do not need to make any transactions, if you do not know what is the primary reason for signing the contract. Consider the situation for your part, and from the position of a partner.
The market develops constantly. Each participant in the transactions must be well versed in the situation, laws and other important aspects of the economy. Otherwise, he may suffer significant losses related to his actions or attacks of competitors in the market.