Classification of computers: the basic principles
Today, due to the rapid progress of theall spheres of human activity, the sphere of application of electronic computers is extremely diverse and continues to expand continuously. Without modern computers, no branch of the national economy, scientific or technical discipline can do now.
Such a grandiose variety of areasuse and types of computing equipment has generated a huge number of different characteristics, according to which the computer is classified. In the clear, consistent systematization of electronic computers, an urgent need arose because of the too large variety of various parameters and the purpose of these technical means.
Such signs are the principle of action,specifications; purpose; object of installation of equipment; operating conditions and service rules; Applied system architecture and its design basis; various economic factors, etc. The probable influence of all these circumstances must be taken into account when designing, manufacturing and installing a computer system.
The most rational and appropriate is thegeneralized classification of the computer for a limited number of key features, since such a principle of systematization makes it possible to distinguish the fundamental distinctive features of various groups, types, categories and classes. This approach is considered the most practical and reasonable.
Depending on the principle of operation, the classificationThe computer defines the following categories of computer systems: digital, analog-digital and analog types of computers. Digital computers process signals represented in the form of a binary digital code. The analog action equipment, respectively, works with analog signals. Well, the combined system combines both these principles. Of course, the main distinctive feature of these systems is their component configuration.
Classification of the computer for its intended purpose is itselfextensive. This includes specialized, control, monitoring, personal, training (various simulators), general purpose and many others. Universal computer systems are focused primarily on performing tasks of the widest range and direction: mathematical, astronomical, engineering, economic, statistical, etc. This classification of computers implies the presence in this category of machines capable of performing a wide variety of tasks for any algorithm.
A distinctive feature of the computingtechnology of general purpose is the architecture, allowing to connect the widest spectrum of various peripheral devices depending on the specificity of the task performed. The change in their number and technical parameters allows not only instantly switching to tasks of completely different specifics and varying the principles of data processing, but also to ensure the maximum level of interaction between the system and the user.
In addition, in this context, it is extremely importantis the classification of computer software. It is at the moment hundreds of thousands of different software products, designed sometimes to solve very specific problems. All software can be conditionally divided into the following main categories: basic software (here, as a rule, includes operating systems and software shells), translators, tools and application programs.